Project description:The role of N-glycosylation in the function of human acetylcholinesterase (HuAChE) was examined by site-directed mutagenesis (Asn to Gln substitution) of the three potential N-glycosylation sites Asn-265, Asn-350 and Asn-464. Analysis of HuAChE mutants, defective in a single or multiple N-glycosylation sites, by expression in transiently or stably transfected human embryonal 293 kidney cells suggests the following. (a) All three AChE glycosylation signals are utilized, but not all the secreted molecules are fully glycosylated. (b) Glycosylation at all sites is important for effective biosynthesis and secretion; extracellular AChE levels in mutants defective in one, two or all three sites amounted to 20-30%, 2-4% and about 0.5% of wild-type level respectively. (c) Some glycosylation mutants display impaired stability, as reflected by increased susceptibility to heat inactivation; substitution of Asn-464 has the most pronounced effect on thermostability. (d) Abrogation of N-glycosylation has no detectable effect on the enzyme activity of HuAChE; all glycosylation mutants, including the triple mutant, hydrolyse acetylthiocholine efficiently, displaying Km, kcat. and kcat./Km values similar to those of the wild-type enzyme. (e) In most mutants, inhibition profiles with edrophonium and bisquaternary ammonium ligands are identical with those of wild-type enzyme; the Asn-350 mutants, however, exhibit a slight decrease in their affinity towards these ligands. (f) Elimination of oligosaccharide side chains has no detectable effect on the surface-related 'peripheral-site' functions; like the wild-type enzyme, all mutants were inhibited by propidium and by increased concentrations of acetylthiocholine.
Project description:Human angiotensin-converting enzyme is an important drug target for which little structural information has been available until recent years. The slow progress in obtaining a crystal structure was due to the problem of surface glycosylation, a difficulty that has thus far been overcome by the use of a glucosidase-1 inhibitor in the tissue culture medium. However, the prohibitive cost of these inhibitors and incomplete glucosidase inhibition makes alternative routes to minimizing the N-glycan heterogeneity desirable. Here, glycosylation in the testis isoform (tACE) has been reduced by Asn-Gln point mutations at N-glycosylation sites, and the crystal structures of mutants having two and four intact sites have been solved to 2.0 A and 2.8 A, respectively. Both mutants show close structural identity with the wild-type. A hinge mechanism is proposed for substrate entry into the active cleft, based on homology to human ACE2 at the levels of sequence and flexibility. This is supported by normal-mode analysis that reveals intrinsic flexibility about the active site of tACE. Subdomain II, containing bound chloride and zinc ions, is found to have greater stability than subdomain I in the structures of three ACE homologues. Crystallizable glycosylation mutants open up new possibilities for cocrystallization studies to aid the design of novel ACE inhibitors.
Project description:The CRT (creatine transporter) is a member of the Na+- and Cl--dependent neurotransmitter transporter family and is responsible for the import of creatine into cells, and thus is important for cellular energy metabolism. We established for CRT an expression system in HEK-293 cells that allowed biochemical, immunological and functional analysis of CRT wild-type and glycosylation-deficient mutants. Analysis of HA (haemagglutinin)-tagged CRT-NN (wild-type rat CRT with an HA-tag at the C-terminus) revealed several monomeric immunoreactive species with apparent molecular masses of 58, 48 and 43 kDa. The 58 kDa species was shown to be plasma-membrane-resident by EndoHf (endoglycosidase Hf) and PNGase F (peptide N-glycosidase F) treatments and represents fully glycosylated CRT, whereas the 48 kDa and 43 kDa species were glycosylation intermediates and non-glycosylated CRT respectively. Glycosylation-deficient mutants (Asn192Asp, Asn197Asp and Asn192Asp/Asn197Asp) showed altered electrophoretic mobility, indicating that CRT is indeed N-glycosylated. In addition, a prominent CRT band in the range of 75-91 kDa was also detected. Pharmacological inhibition of N-linked glycosylation by tunicamycin in CRT-NN-expressing cells gave a similar reduction in molecular mass, corroborating the finding that Asn192 and Asn197 are major N-glycosylation sites in CRT. Although the apparent Km was not significantly affected in glycosylation-deficient mutants compared with CRT-NN, we measured reduced Vmax values for all mutants (21-28% residual activity), and 51% residual activity after enzymatic deglycosylation of surface proteins in intact CRT-NN cells by PNGase F. Moreover, immunocytochemical analysis of CRT-NN- and CRT-DD-expressing cells (where CRT-DD represents a non-glycosylated double mutant of CRT, i.e. Asn192Asp/Asn197Asp) showed a lower abundance of CRT-DD in the plasma membrane. Taken together, our results suggest that plasma-membrane CRT is glycosylated and has an apparent monomer molecular mass of 58 kDa. Furthermore, N-linked glycosylation is neither exclusively important for the function of CRT nor for surface trafficking, but affects both processes. These findings may have relevance for closely related neurotransmitter transporter family members.
Project description:O-Mannosylation is a type of protein glycosylation initiated in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the protein O-mannosyltransferase (PMT) family. Despite the vital role of O-mannosylation, its molecular functions and regulation are not fully characterized. To further explore the cellular impact of protein O-mannosylation, we performed a genome-wide screen to identify Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants with increased sensitivity towards the PMT-specific inhibitor compound R3A-5a. We identified the cell wall and the ER as the cell compartments affected most upon PMT inhibition. Especially mutants with defects in N-glycosylation, biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins and cell wall ?-1,6-glucan showed impaired growth when O-mannosylation became limiting. Signaling pathways that counteract cell wall defects and unbalanced ER homeostasis, namely the cell wall integrity pathway and the unfolded protein response, were highly crucial for the cell growth. Moreover, among the most affected mutants, we identified Ost3, one of two homologous subunits of the oligosaccharyltransferase complexes involved in N-glycosylation, suggesting a functional link between the two pathways. Indeed, we identified Pmt2 as a substrate for Ost3 suggesting that the reduced function of Pmt2 in the absence of N-glycosylation promoted sensitivity to the drug. Interestingly, even though S. cerevisiae Pmt1 and Pmt2 proteins are highly similar on the sequence, as well as the structural level and act as a complex, we identified only Pmt2, but not Pmt1, as an Ost3-specific substrate protein.
Project description:We did transcription profiling on the effect of pmt1 pmt4 deletion, genes involved in the O-glycosylation process. These mutants cells show inhibition of mating, filamentation and induction of cell wall compensatory mechanism. Two biological samples were analyzed for each condition, and a microarray experiment were carried out for each sample 1. wild type cells SEY6210 2. pmt1 pmt2 cells from SEY6210 background
Project description:We did transcription profiling on the effect of pmt1 pmt2 deletion. These genes are involved in the O-glycosylation process. These mutants cells show inhibition of mating, filamentation and induction of cell wall compensatory mechanism. Overall design: Two biological samples were analyzed for each condition, and a microarray experiment were carried out for each sample 1. wild type cells SEY6210 2. pmt1 pmt2 cells from SEY6210 background
Project description:We did transcription profiling on the effect of pmt1 pmt4 deletion, genes involved in the O-glycosylation process. These mutants cells show inhibition of mating, filamentation and induction of cell wall compensatory mechanism. Overall design: Two biological samples were analyzed for each condition, and a microarray experiment were carried out for each sample 1. wild type cells SEY6210 2. pmt1 pmt2 cells from SEY6210 background
Project description:We did transcription profiling on the effect of pmt1 pmt2 deletion. These genes are involved in the O-glycosylation process. These mutants cells show inhibition of mating, filamentation and induction of cell wall compensatory mechanism. Two biological samples were analyzed for each condition, and a microarray experiment were carried out for each sample 1. wild type cells SEY6210 2. pmt1 pmt2 cells from SEY6210 background
Project description:Hydroxyproline-O-galactosyltransferase (GALT) initiates O-glycosylation of arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs). We previously characterized GALT2 (At4g21060), and now report on functional characterization of GALT5 (At1g74800). GALT5 was identified using heterologous expression in Pichia and an in vitro GALT assay. Product characterization showed GALT5 specifically adds galactose to hydroxyproline in AGP protein backbones. Functions of GALT2 and GALT5 were elucidated by phenotypic analysis of single and double mutant plants. Allelic galt5 and galt2 mutants, and particularly galt2 galt5 double mutants, demonstrated lower GALT activities and reductions in ?-Yariv-precipitated AGPs compared to wild type. Mutant plants showed pleiotropic growth and development phenotypes (defects in root hair growth, root elongation, pollen tube growth, flowering time, leaf development, silique length, and inflorescence growth), which were most severe in the double mutants. Conditional mutant phenotypes were also observed, including salt-hypersensitive root growth and root tip swelling as well as reduced inhibition of pollen tube growth and root growth in response to ?-Yariv reagent. These mutants also phenocopy mutants for an AGP, SOS5, and two cell wall receptor-like kinases, FEI1 and FEI2, which exist in a genetic signaling pathway. In summary, GALT5 and GALT2 function as redundant GALTs that control AGP O-glycosylation, which is essential for normal growth and development.
Project description:Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (C. reinhardtii) N-glycans carry plant typical ?1,2-core xylose, ?1,3-fucose residues, as well as plant atypical terminal ?1,4-xylose and methylated mannoses. In a recent study, XylT1A was shown to act as core xylosyltransferase, whereby its action was of importance for an inhibition of excessive Man1A dependent trimming. N-Glycans found in a XylT1A/Man1A double mutant carried core xylose residues, suggesting the existence of a second core xylosyltransferase in C. reinhardtii. To further elucidate enzymes important for N-glycosylation, novel single knockdown mutants of candidate genes involved in the N-glycosylation pathway were characterized. In addition, double, triple, and quadruple mutants affecting already known N-glycosylation pathway genes were generated. By characterizing N-glycan compositions of intact N-glycopeptides from these mutant strains by mass spectrometry, a candidate gene encoding for a second putative core xylosyltransferase (XylT1B) was identified. Additionally, the role of a putative fucosyltransferase was revealed. Mutant strains with knockdown of both xylosyltransferases and the fucosyltransferase resulted in the formation of N-glycans with strongly diminished core modifications. Thus, the mutant strains generated will pave the way for further investigations on how single N-glycan core epitopes modulate protein function in C. reinhardtii.