Project description:A reverse transcriptase (RT) cDNA, designated HERV-K-T47D-RT, was isolated from a hormonally treated human breast cancer cell line. The protein product putative sequence is 97% identical to the human endogenous HERV-K retroviral sequences. Recombinant T47D-RT protein was used to generate polyclonal antibodies. The expression of HERV-K-T47D-RT protein increased in T47D cells after treatment with estrogen and progesterone. The RT-associated DNA polymerase activity was substantially increased after over-expressing a chimeric YFP-HERV-K-T47D-RT protein in cells. This RT-associated polymerase activity was significantly reduced by mutating the active site sequence YIDD to SIAA. Moreover, the endogenous RT activity observed in T47D cells was decreased by HERV-K-T47D-RT-specific siRNA, confirming the dependence of the endogenous enzymatic activity. To assess HERV-K-T47D-RT expression in human breast tumors, 110 paraffin sections of breast carcinoma biopsies were stained and subjected to confocal analysis. Twenty-six percent (28/110) of the tumor tissues and 18% (15/85) of the adjacent normal tissue, from the same patients, expressed the RT. HERV-K-T47D-RT expression significantly correlates with poor prognosis for disease-free patients and their overall survival. These results imply that HERV-K-T47D-RT might be expressed in early malignancy and might serve as a novel prognostic marker for breast cancer. Furthermore, these results provide evidence for the possible involvement of endogenous retrovirus in human breast carcinoma.
Project description:NgBR is a type I receptor with a single transmembrane domain and was identified as a specific receptor for Nogo-B. Our recent findings demonstrated that NgBR binds farnesylated Ras and recruits Ras to the plasma membrane, which is a critical step required for the activation of Ras signaling in human breast cancer cells and tumorigenesis. Here, we first use immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR approaches to examine the expression patterns of Nogo-B and NgBR in both normal and breast tumor tissues. Then, we examine the relationship between NgBR expression and molecular subtypes of breast cancer, and the roles of NgBR in estrogen-dependent survivin signaling pathway. Results showed that NgBR and Nogo-B protein were detected in both normal and breast tumor tissues. However, the expression of Nogo-B and NgBR in breast tumor tissue was much stronger than in normal breast tissue. The statistical analysis demonstrated that NgBR is highly associated with ER-positive/HER2-negative breast cancer. We also found that the expression of NgBR has a strong correlation with the expression of survivin, which is a well-known apoptosis inhibitor. The correlation between NgBR and survivin gene expression was further confirmed by real-time PCR. In vitro results also demonstrated that estradiol induces the expression of survivin in ER-positive T47D breast tumor cells but not in ER-negative MDA-MB-468 breast tumor cells. NgBR knockdown with siRNA abolishes estradiol-induced survivin expression in ER-positive T47D cells but not in ER-negative MDA-MB-468 cells. In addition, estradiol increases the expression of survivin and cell growth in ER-positive MCF-7 and T47D cells whereas knockdown of NgBR with siRNA reduces estradiol-induced survivin expression and cell growth. In summary, these results indicate that NgBR is a new molecular marker for breast cancer. The data suggest that the expression of NgBR may be essential in promoting ER-positive tumor cell proliferation via survivin induction in breast cancer.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Many human breast cancers overexpress the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2 and its homolog MDMX. Expression of MDM2 and MDMX occurs in estrogen receptor ?-positive (ER?+) breast cancer and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). There are p53-independent influences of MDM2 and MDMX, and 80% of TNBC express mutant p53 (mtp53). MDM2 drives TNBC circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in mice, but the context-dependent influences of MDM2 and MDMX on different subtypes of breast cancers expressing mtp53 have not been determined. METHODS:To assess the context-dependent roles, we carried out MDM2 and MDMX knockdown in orthotopic tumors of TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells expressing mtp53 R280K and MDM2 knockdown in ER?+ T47D cells expressing mtp53 L194F. The corresponding cell proliferation was scored in vitro by growth curves and in vivo by orthotopic tumor volumes. Cell migration was assessed in vitro by wound-healing assays and cell intravasation in vivo by sorting GFP-positive CTCs by flow cytometry. The metastasis gene targets were determined by an RT-PCR array card screen and verified by qRT-PCR and Western blot analysis. RESULTS:Knocking down MDMX or MDM2 in MDA-MB-231 cells reduced cell migration and CTC detection, but only MDMX knockdown reduced tumor volumes at early time points. This is the first report of MDMX overexpression in TNBC enhancing the CTC phenotype with correlated upregulation of CXCR4. Experiments were carried out to compare MDM2-knockdown outcomes in nonmetastatic ER?+ T47D cells. The knockdown of MDM2 in ER?+ T47D orthotopic tumors decreased primary tumor volumes, supporting our previous finding that estrogen-activated MDM2 increases cell proliferation. CONCLUSIONS:This is the first report showing that the expression of MDM2 in ER?+ breast cancer and TNBC can result in different tumor-promoting outcomes. Both MDMX and MDM2 overexpression in TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells enhanced the CTC phenotype. These data indicate that both MDM2 and MDMX can promote TNBC metastasis and that it is important to consider the context-dependent roles of MDM2 family members in different subtypes of breast cancer.
Project description:Background Metastatic progression of breast cancer is still a challenge in clinical oncology. Therefore, an elucidation how carcinoma cells belonging to different breast cancer subtypes realize their metastatic capacities is needed. The aim of this study was to elucidate a similarity of activated molecular pathways underlying an enhancement of invasiveness of carcinoma cells belonging to different breast carcinoma subtypes. Materials and methods In order to reach this aim, parental and invasive (INV) MDA-MB-231 (triple-negative), T47D (hormone receptor-positive), and Au565 (Her2-positive) breast carcinoma cells were used and their molecular phenotypes were compared using a proteomic approach. Results Independently from breast cancer subtypes, INV cells have demonstrated fibroblast-like morphology accompanied by enhancement of invasive and migratory capacities, increased expression of cancer stem cell markers, and delayed tumor growth in in vivo animal models. However, the global proteomic analysis has highlighted that INV cells were different in protein expressions from the parental cells, and Her2-positive Au565-INV cells showed the most pronounced molecular differences compared to the triple-negative MDA-MB-231-INV and hormone receptor-positive T47D-INV cells. Although Au565-INV breast carcinoma cells possessed the highest number of deregulated proteins, they had the lowest overlapping in proteins commonly expressed in MDA-MB-231-INV and T47D-INV cells. Conclusions We can conclude that hormone receptor-positive cells with increased invasiveness acquire the molecular characteristics of triple-negative breast cancer cells, whereas Her2-positive INV cells specifically changed their own molecular phenotype with very limited partaking in the involved pathways found in the MDA-MB-231-INV and T47D-INV cells. Since hormone receptor-positive invasive cells share their molecular properties with triple-negative breast cancer cells, we assume that these types of metastatic disease can be treated rather equally with an option to add anti-hormonal agents. In contrast, Her2-positive metastasis should be carefully evaluated for more effective therapeutic approaches which are distinct from the triple-negative and hormone-positive metastatic breast cancers.
Project description:Prolactin-Induced Protein (PIP) is a small polypeptide expressed by breast and prostate cancer (BCa, PCa) cells. However, both the regulation of PIP expression and its function in cancer cells are poorly understood. Using BCa and PCa cells, we found that Runx2, a pro-metastatic transcription factor, functionally interacts with the Androgen Receptor (AR) to regulate PIP expression. Runx2 expression in C4-2B PCa cells synergized with AR to promote PIP expression, whereas its knockdown in T47D BCa cells abrogated basal as well as hormone stimulated PIP expression. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays showed that Runx2 and AR co-occupied an enhancer element located ?11 kb upstream of the PIP open reading frame, and that Runx2 facilitated AR recruitment to the enhancer. PIP knockdown in T47D cells compromised DHT-stimulated expression of multiple AR target genes including PSA, FKBP5, FASN, and SGK1. The inhibition of AR activity due to loss of PIP was attributable at least in part to abrogation of its nuclear translocation. PIP knockdown also suppressed T47D cell proliferation driven by either serum growth factors or dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Our data suggest that Runx2 controls a positive feedback loop between androgen signaling and PIP, and pharmacological inhibition of PIP may be useful to treat PIP positive tumors.
Project description:In previous studies, we identified a distantly related rhomboid homologue gene known as RHBDD2 (Rhomboid domain containing 2) to be markedly overexpressed in the advanced stages of the breast and colorectal cancer diseases. In order to identify RHBDD2 modulated pathways, we analyzed two breast cancer cell lines (MCF7 and T47D) from control and RHBDD2-siRNA transient gene silencing followed by gene expression profiling analysis using the whole genome Toray 3D-GeneTM Human Oligo Chip. Statistical analysis of the Toray's 3D gene expression profiling data identified 566 commonly differentially expressed genes in association to the RHBDD2 knockdown in both breast cancer cell lines. Among the statistically significant over-represented biological process, we found the apoptosis, cell cycle and response to DNA damage process related genes. In addition, categories of genes found in the ubiquitin-proteasome and oxidative phosphorylation were also highly enriched related genes in the commonly deregulated gene list. We further used a lentivirus-based system (shRNA-pLKO.1) for stable silencing of RHBDD2 mRNA in the T47D breast cancer cell line. Using a staurosporine-induced apoptosis model, we demonstrate that RHBDD2 abrogation resulted in an apoptosis-resistant phenotype of T47D breast cancer cell line. These data are in line with a recent study, suggesting that RHBDD2 expression could be up-modulated in response to 5FU-induced apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells. Taken together, these data suggest that RHBDD2 could be involved in the modulation of the programmed cell death in cancer cells. In order to analyze differential gene expression profiling of RHBDD2 silencing and control cells, total RNA was isolated from replicate experiments from two breast cancer cell lines (MCF7 and T47D) derived from the negative control-siRNA and the RHBDD2-siRNA treatments in duplicate experiments.
Project description:The Notch pathway is functionally important in breast cancer. Notch-1 has been reported to maintain an estrogen-independent phenotype in estrogen receptor ? (ER?)+ breast cancer cells. Notch-4 expression correlates with Ki67. Notch-4 also plays a key role in breast cancer stem-like cells. Estrogen-independent breast cancer cell lines have higher Notch activity than estrogen-dependent lines. Protein kinase C? (PKC?) overexpression is common in endocrine-resistant breast cancers and promotes tamoxifen (TAM)-resistant growth in breast cancer cell lines. We tested whether PKC? overexpression affects Notch activity and whether Notch signaling contributes to endocrine resistance in PKC?-overexpressing breast cancer cells.Analysis of published microarray data from ER?+ breast carcinomas shows that PKC? expression correlates strongly with Notch-4. Real-time reverse transcription PCR and immunohistochemistry on archival specimens confirmed this finding. In a PKC?-overexpressing, TAM-resistant T47D model, PKC? selectively increases Notch-4, but not Notch-1, expression in vitro and in vivo. This effect is mediated by activator protein-1 (AP-1) occupancy of the Notch-4 promoter. Notch-4 knockdown inhibits estrogen-independent growth of PKC?-overexpressing T47D cells, whereas Notch-4IC expression stimulates it. Gene expression profiling shows that multiple genes and pathways associated with endocrine resistance are induced in Notch-4IC- and PKC?-expressing T47D cells. In PKC?-overexpressing T47D xenografts, an orally active ?-secretase inhibitor at clinically relevant doses significantly decreased estrogen-independent tumor growth, alone and in combination with TAM. In conclusion, PKC? overexpression induces Notch-4 through AP-1. Notch-4 promotes estrogen-independent, TAM-resistant growth and activates multiple pathways connected with endocrine resistance and chemoresistance. Notch inhibitors should be clinically evaluated in PKC?- and Notch-4-overexpressing, endocrine-resistant breast cancers.
Project description:Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies and the leading cause of cancer-associated death among women. Anterior gradient 3 (AGR3) is a cancer-associated gene and is similar to its homologous oncogene AGR2. However, whether AGR3 participates in breast cancer progression remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the function of AGR3 in ER-positive breast cancer. In the present study, reverse transcription-quantitative PCR was used to detect AGR3 mRNA expression in breast cancer tissues and cell lines; linear correlation analysis was used to investigate the correlation between AGR3 and estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) expression in breast cancer via GEO dataset analysis; western blotting was used to assess the levels of AGR3, ER and GAPDH; small interfering (si)RNA transfection was used to knock down AGR3 and ESR1 expression; and finally the Cell Counting Kit-8 assay was used to evaluate cell viability. In the present study, AGR3 expression was markedly increased in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer tissues and cell lines compared with that in ER-negative breast cancer. AGR3 expression was upregulated in estrogen-treated T47D cells, whereas 4-hydroxytamoxifen, an inhibitor of estrogen-ER activity in breast cancer cells, downregulated AGR3 expression in T47D cells. Functional assays demonstrated that knockdown of AGR3 using siRNAs inhibited T47D cell proliferation compared with that of the negative control group. Additionally, AGR3 expression was decreased after knocking down ESR1. The present results suggested that AGR3 may serve an important role in estrogen-mediated cell proliferation in breast cancer and that AGR3 knockdown may be a potential therapeutic strategy for ER-positive breast cancer.
Project description:Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subpopulation of cells that can self-renew and initiate tumours. The clotting-initiating protein Tissue Factor (TF) promotes metastasis and may be overexpressed in cancer cells with increased CSC activity. We sought to determine whether TF promotes breast CSC activity in vitro using human breast cancer cell lines. TF expression was compared in anoikis-resistant (CSC-enriched) and unselected cells. In cells sorted into of TF-expressing and TF-negative (FACS), and in cells transfected to knockdown TF (siRNA) and overexpress TF (cDNA), CSC activity was compared by (i) mammosphere forming efficiency (MFE) (ii) holoclone colony formation (Hc) and (iii) ALDH1 activity. TF expression was increased in anoikis-resistant and high ALDH1-activity T47D cells compared to unselected cells. FACS sorted TF-expressing T47Ds and TF-overexpressing MCF7s had increased CSC activity compared to TF-low cells. TF siRNA cells (MDAMB231,T47D) had reduced CSC activity compared to control cells. FVIIa increased MFE and ALDH1 in a dose-dependent manner (MDAMB231, T47D). The effects of FVIIa on MFE were abrogated by TF siRNA (T47D). Breast CSCs (in vitro) demonstrate increased activity when selected for high TF expression, when induced to overexpress TF, and when stimulated (with FVIIa). Targeting the TF pathway in vivo may abrogate CSC activity.
Project description:Estrogens play a pivotal role in the development and proliferation of hormone-dependent breast cancer. Apart from free estrogens, which can directly activate the estrogen receptor (ER) of tumor cells, sulfo-conjugated steroids, which maintain high plasma concentrations even after menopause, first have to be imported into tumor cells by carrier-mediated uptake and then can be cleaved by the steroid sulfatase to finally activate ERs and cell proliferation. In the present study, expression of the sodium-dependent organic anion transporter SOAT was analyzed in breast cancer and its role for hormone-dependent proliferation of T47D breast cancer cells was elucidated. The SOAT protein was localized to the ductal epithelium of the mammary gland by immunohistochemistry. SOAT showed high expression in different pathologies of the breast with a clear ductal localization, including ductal hyperplasia, intraductal papilloma, and intraductal carcinoma. In a larger breast cancer cDNA array, SOAT mRNA expression was high in almost all adenocarcinoma specimen, but expression did not correlate with either the ER, progesterone receptor, or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status. Furthermore, SOAT expression did not correlate with tumor stage or grade, indicating widespread SOAT expression in breast cancer. To analyze the role of SOAT for breast cancer cell proliferation, T47D cells were stably transfected with SOAT and incubated under increasing concentrations of estrone-3-sulfate (E1S) and estradiol at physiologically relevant concentrations. Cell proliferation was significantly increased by 10-9 M estradiol as well as by E1S with EC50 of 2.2 nM. In contrast, T47D control cells showed 10-fold lower sensitivity to E1S stimulation with EC50 of 21.7 nM. The E1S-stimulated proliferation of SOAT-T47D cells was blocked by the SOAT inhibitor 4-sulfooxymethylpyrene.The present study clearly demonstrates expression of SOAT in breast cancer tissue with ductal localization. SOAT inhibition can block the E1S-stimulated proliferation of T47D breast cancer cells, demonstrating that SOAT is an interesting novel drug target from the group of E1S uptake carriers for anti-proliferative breast cancer therapy.