Project description:We investigated the evidence of recent positive selection in the human phototransduction system at single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and gene level.SNP genotyping data from the International HapMap Project for European, Eastern Asian, and African populations was used to discover differences in haplotype length and allele frequency between these populations. Numeric selection metrics were computed for each SNP and aggregated into gene-level metrics to measure evidence of recent positive selection. The level of recent positive selection in phototransduction genes was evaluated and compared to a set of genes shown previously to be under recent selection, and a set of highly conserved genes as positive and negative controls, respectively.Six of 20 phototransduction genes evaluated had gene-level selection metrics above the 90th percentile: RGS9, GNB1, RHO, PDE6G, GNAT1, and SLC24A1. The selection signal across these genes was found to be of similar magnitude to the positive control genes and much greater than the negative control genes.There is evidence for selective pressure in the genes involved in retinal phototransduction, and traces of this selective pressure can be demonstrated using SNP-level and gene-level metrics of allelic variation. We hypothesize that the selective pressure on these genes was related to their role in low light vision and retinal adaptation to ambient light changes. Uncovering the underlying genetics of evolutionary adaptations in phototransduction not only allows greater understanding of vision and visual diseases, but also the development of patient-specific diagnostic and intervention strategies.
Project description:Using a genome-wide gene expression data set generated from Affymetrix GeneChip Human Exon 1.0ST array, we comprehensively surveyed the role of 322 X chromosome gene expression traits on cellular sensitivity to cisplatin and carboplatin. We identified 31 and 17 X chromosome genes whose expression levels are significantly correlated (after multiple testing correction) with sensitivity to carboplatin and cisplatin, respectively, in the combined HapMap CEU (Utah residents with ancestry from northern and western Europe) and YRI (Yoruba in Ibahan, Nigeria) populations (false discovery rate, FDR < 0.05). Of those, 14 overlap for both cisplatin and carboplatin. Using an independent gene expression quantification method, the Illumina Sentrix Human-6 Expression BeadChip, measured on the same HapMap cell lines, we found that 4 and 2 of these genes are significantly associated with carboplatin and cisplatin sensitivity, respectively, in both analyses. Two genes, CTPS2 and DLG3, were identified by both genome-wide gene expression analyses as correlated with cellular sensitivity to both platinating agents. The expression of DLG3 gene was also found to correlate with cellular sensitivity to platinating agents in NCI-60 cancer cell lines. In addition, we evaluated whether the expression of X chromosome genes contributed to the observed differences in sensitivity to the platinums between CEU and YRI-derived cell lines. Of the 34 distinct genes significantly correlated with either carboplatin or cisplatin sensitivity, 14 are differentially expressed (defined as P < 0.05) between CEU and YRI. Thus, sex chromosome genes play a role in cellular sensitivity to platinating agents and differences in the expression level of these genes are an important source of variation that should be included in comprehensive pharmacogenomic studies.
Project description:The population of Costa Rica (CR) represents an admixture of major continental populations. An investigation of the CR population structure would provide an important foundation for mapping genetic variants underlying common diseases and traits. We conducted an analysis of 1,301 women from the Guanacaste region of CR using 27,904 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped on a custom Illumina InfiniumII iSelect chip. The program STRUCTURE was used to compare the CR Guanacaste sample with four continental reference samples, including HapMap Europeans (CEU), East Asians (JPT+CHB), West African Yoruba (YRI), as well as Native Americans (NA) from the Illumina iControl database. Our results show that the CR Guanacaste sample comprises a three-way admixture estimated to be 43% European, 38% Native American and 15% West African. An estimated 4% residual Asian ancestry may be within the error range. Results from principal components analysis reveal a correlation between genetic and geographic distance. The magnitude of linkage disequilibrium (LD) measured by the number of tagging SNPs required to cover the same region in the genome in the CR Guanacaste sample appeared to be weaker than that observed in CEU, JPT+CHB and NA reference samples but stronger than that of the HapMap YRI sample. Based on the clustering pattern observed in both STRUCTURE and principal components analysis, two subpopulations were identified that differ by approximately 20% in LD block size averaged over all LD blocks identified by Haploview. We also show in a simulated association study conducted within the two subpopulations, that the failure to account for population stratification (PS) could lead to a noticeable inflation in the false positive rate. However, we further demonstrate that existing PS adjustment approaches can reduce the inflation to an acceptable level for gene discovery.