Project description:To investigate the effect of CodY mutation on the gene expression in Streptococcus suis serotype 2 SC19 strain, we have employed whole genome microarray expression profiling as a discovery platform to identify genes regulated by CodY mutation. DNA microarray analysis was performed using an Agilent custom-designed oligonucleotide microarray. Based upon the whole genome sequence of SC19 , specific 60-mer oligonucleotide probes were designed using eArray (https://earray.chem.agilent.com/earray/), to cover all annotated genes. Probes were printed seven times on microarray slides. Three biological replicates of total RNA from two wild type strains and from two codY mutant strains were amplified and labeled with Cy3-CTP using Low Input Quick Amp Labeling Kit, one-color(Agilent technologies, US), following the manufacturer’s instructions. Labeled cRNA was purified using the RNeasy mini kit (Qiagen). After fragmentation, microarray slides were hybridized with 600 ng Cy3-labeled cRNA. Hybridization was performed at 65 °C for 17 h with rotation at 10 rpm. Microarray slides were washed and scanned by an Agilent Microarray Scanner (G2565BA). Those genes with greater than two-fold change ratios were regarded as differentially expressed genes. codY mutation induced gene expression in Streptococcus suis serotype 2 SC19 was detected in two wild type and two codY mutated strain of Streptococcus suis serotype 2.
Project description:Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen causing economic loss in the swine industry and is also a threat to human health. To date, the mechanism of pathogenesis is not fully understood. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of S. suis strain ST3 of serotype 3, which provides opportunities to reveal genetic basis of infection of S. suis non-serotype 2 strains.
Project description:Streptococcus suis is divided into 29 serotypes based on a serological reaction against the capsular polysaccharide (CPS). Multiplex PCR tests targeting the cps locus are also used to determine S. suis serotypes, but they cannot differentiate between serotypes 1 and 14, and between serotypes 2 and 1/2. Here, we developed a pipeline permitting in silico serotype determination from whole-genome sequencing (WGS) short-read data that can readily identify all 29?S. suis serotypes.We sequenced the genomes of 121 strains representing all 29 known S. suis serotypes. We next combined available software into an automated pipeline permitting in silico serotyping of strains by differential alignment of short-read sequencing data to a custom S. suis cps loci database. Strains of serotype pairs 1 and 14, and 2 and 1/2 could be differentiated by a missense mutation in the cpsK gene. We report a 99 % match between coagglutination- and pipeline-determined serotypes for strains in our collection. We used 375 additional S. suis genomes downloaded from the NCBI's Sequence Read Archive (SRA) to validate the pipeline. Validation with SRA WGS data resulted in a 92 % match. Included pipeline subroutines permitted us to assess strain virulence marker content and obtain multilocus sequence typing directly from WGS data.Our pipeline permits rapid and accurate determination of S. suis serotype, and other lineage information, directly from WGS data. By discriminating between serotypes 1 and 14, and between serotypes 2 and 1/2, our approach solves a three-decade longstanding S. suis typing issue.
Project description:Streptococcus suis is a major swine pathogen responsible for significant, worldwide economic losses in the swine industry, in addition to being an emerging zoonotic agent. Strains of serotype 2 are the most commonly associated with infections causing meningitis, endocarditis, and septicemia. Here we present the genome sequence of S. suis serotype 2 strain S735.
Project description:We developed three type-specific PCR assays for the rapid and sensitive detection of Streptococcus suis serotype 1 (plus 14), serotype 2 (plus 1/2), and serotype 9 strains in tonsillar specimens from pigs. The PCR primers were based on the sequences of type-specific capsular genes of S. suis serotype 1, 2, and 9 strains. We recently characterized a major part of the capsular biosynthesis (cps) locus of S. suis serotype 2. Here we extended these studies and characterized major parts of the cps loci of S. suis serotypes 1 and 9. Type-specific genes were identified by cross-hybridization experiments between the individual cps genes and chromosomal DNAs from the 35 different serotypes. Four genes of S. suis serotype 1 specifically hybridized with serotype 1 and 14 strains only. Five genes of S. suis serotype 2 specifically hybridized with serotype 2 and 1/2 strains only, and two genes of S. suis serotype 9 specifically hybridized with serotype 9 strains. Until now rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests were available only for pathogenic strains of serotype 2 and highly pathogenic strains of serotype 1. The serotype-specific PCR assays can therefore be useful tools for the identification of serotype 1, 14, 2, 1/2, and 9 strains both for diagnostic purposes and in epidemiological and transmission studies. Therefore, these tests may facilitate control and eradication programs.
Project description:Invasive serotype 2 (cps2+) strains of Streptococcus suis cause meningitis in pigs and humans. Four case reports of S. suis meningitis in hunters suggest transmission of S. suis through the butchering of wild boars. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of potentially human-pathogenic S. suis strains in wild boars. S. suis was isolated from 92% of all tested tonsils (n=200) from wild boars. A total of 244 S. suis isolates were genotyped using PCR assays for the detection of serotype-specific genes, the hemolysin gene sly, and the virulence-associated genes mrp and epf. The prevalence of the cps2+ genotype among strains from wild boars was comparable to that of control strains from domestic pig carriers. Ninety-five percent of the cps2+ wild boar strains were positive for mrp, sly, and epf*, the large variant of epf. Interestingly, epf* was significantly more frequently detected in cps2+ strains from wild boars than in those from domestic pigs; epf* is also typically found in European S. suis isolates from humans, including a meningitis isolate from a German hunter. These results suggest that at least 10% of wild boars in Northwestern Germany carry S. suis strains that are potentially virulent in humans. Additional amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis supported this hypothesis, since homogeneous clustering of the epf* mrp+ sly+ cps2+ strains from wild boars with invasive human and porcine strains was observed.
Project description:An outbreak of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 emerged in the summer of 2005 in Sichuan Province, and sporadic infections occurred in 4 additional provinces of China. In total, 99 S. suis strains were isolated and analyzed in this study: 88 isolates from human patients and 11 from diseased pigs. We defined 98 of 99 isolates as pulse type I by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of SmaI-digested chromosomal DNA. Furthermore, multilocus sequence typing classified 97 of 98 members of the pulse type I in the same sequence type (ST), ST-7. Isolates of ST-7 were more toxic to peripheral blood mononuclear cells than ST-1 strains. S. suis ST-7, the causative agent, was a single-locus variant of ST-1 with increased virulence. These findings strongly suggest that ST-7 is an emerging, highly virulent S. suis clone that caused the largest S. suis outbreak ever described.
Project description:Streptococcus suis infects pigs worldwide and may be zoonotically transmitted to humans with a mortality rate of up to 20%. S. suis has been shown to develop in vitro resistance to the two leading drugs of choice, penicillin and gentamicin. Because of this, we have pursued an alternative therapy to treat these pathogens using bacteriophage lysins. The bacteriophage lysin PlySs2 is derived from an S. suis phage and displays potent lytic activity against most strains of that species including serotypes 2 and 9. At 64 ?g/ml, PlySs2 reduced multiple serotypes of S. suis by 5 to 6-logs within 1 hour in vitro and exhibited a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 32 ?g/ml for a S. suis serotype 2 strain and 64 ?g/ml for a serotype 9 strain. Using a single 0.1-mg dose, the colonizing S. suis serotype 9 strain was reduced from the murine intranasal mucosa by >4 logs; a 0.1-mg dose of gentamicin reduced S. suis by <3-logs. A combination of 0.05 mg PlySs2 + 0.05 mg gentamicin reduced S. suis by >5-logs. While resistance to gentamicin was induced after systematically increasing levels of gentamicin in an S. suis culture, the same protocol resulted in no observable resistance to PlySs2. Thus, PlySs2 has both broad and high killing activity against multiple serotypes and strains of S. suis, making it a possible tool in the control and prevention of S. suis infections in pigs and humans.
Project description:Streptococcus ruminantium sp. nov. of type strain GUT-187T, previously classified as Streptococcus suis serotype 33, is a recently described novel streptococcal species. This study was designed to determine the complete genome sequence of S. ruminantium GUT-187T using a combination of Oxford Nanopore and the Illumina platform, and to compare this sequence with the genomes of 27 S. suis representative strains. The genome of GUT-187T was 2,090,539?bp in size, with a GC content of 40.01%. This genome contained 1,961 predicted protein coding DNA sequences (CDSs); of these, 1,685 (85.9%) showed similarity with S. suis CDSs. Of the remaining 276 CDSs, 81 (29.3%) showed some degree of similarity with CDSs of other streptococcal species. The genome of GUT-187T contained no intact prophage. The numbers of prophages and CRISPR spacers, as well as the presence or absence of genes encoding CRISPR-associated proteins, differed in S. ruminantium and S. suis. A phylogenetic analysis indicates that GUT-187T may be outgroup to the S. suis strains in our sample, thereby justifying its classification as distinct species. Gene mapping indicated 10.2 times of massive genome rearrangements in average occurred between S. ruminantium and S. suis. There was no significant statistical difference in clusters of orthologous group distribution between S. ruminantium and S. suis.
Project description:Strains of serotype 2 Streptococcus suis are responsible for swine and human infections. Different serotype 2 genetic backgrounds have been defined using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). However, little is known about the genetic diversity within each MLST sequence type (ST). Here, we used whole-genome sequencing to test the hypothesis that S. suis serotype 2 strains of the ST25 lineage are genetically heterogeneous. We evaluated 51 serotype 2 ST25 S. suis strains isolated from diseased pigs and humans in Canada, the United States of America, and Thailand. Whole-genome sequencing revealed numerous large-scale rearrangements in the ST25 genome, compared to the genomes of ST1 and ST28 S. suis strains, which result, among other changes, in disruption of a pilus island locus. We report that recombination and lateral gene transfer contribute to ST25 genetic diversity. Phylogenetic analysis identified two main and distinct Thai and North American clades grouping most strains investigated. These clades also possessed distinct patterns of antimicrobial resistance genes, which correlated with acquisition of different integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs). Some of these ICEs were found to be integrated at a recombination hot spot, previously identified as the site of integration of the 89K pathogenicity island in serotype 2 ST7 S. suis strains. Our results highlight the limitations of MLST for phylogenetic analysis of S. suis, and the importance of lateral gene transfer and recombination as drivers of diversity in this swine pathogen and zoonotic agent.