Project description:Leishmaniasis is an anthropozoonotic disease, and dogs are considered the main urban reservoir of the parasite. Macrophages, the target cells of Leishmania sp., play an important role during infection. Although dogs have a major importance in the epidemiology of the disease, the majority of the current knowledge about Leishmania-macrophage interaction comes from murine experimental models. To assess whether the canine macrophage strain DH82 is an accurate model for the study of Leishmania interaction, we compared its infection by two species of Leishmania (Leishmania infantum and L. amazonensis) with the murine macrophage cell line (RAW264.7). Our results demonstrated that L. amazonensis survival was around 40% at 24 h of infection inside both macrophage cell lines; however, a reduction of 4.3 times in L. amazonensis infection at 48 h post-infection in RAW 264.7 macrophages was observed. The survival index of L. infantum in DH82 canine macrophages was around 3 times higher than that in RAW264.7 murine cells at 24 and 48 h post-infection; however, at 48 h a reduction in both macrophages was observed. Surprisingly at 24 h post-infection, NO and ROS production by DH82 canine cells stimulated with LPS or menadione or during Leishmania infection was minor compared to murine RAW264.7. However, basal arginase activity was higher in DH82 cells when compared to murine RAW264.7 cells. Analysis of the cytokines showed that these macrophages present a different response profile. L. infantum induced IL-12, and L. amazonensis induced IL-10 in both cell lines. However, L. infantum and L. amazonensis also induced TGF-? in RAW 264.7. CD86 and MHC expression showed that L. amazonensis modulated them in both cell lines. Conversely, the parasite load profile did not show significant difference between both macrophage cell lines after 48 h of infection, which suggests that other mechanisms of Leishmania control could be involved in DH82 cells.
Project description:Macrophages infected with S. aureus were subjected to gene expression profiling to undertake a complete understanding of the interaction induced gene expression changes in both, S.aureus and the RAW macrophages. Agilent one-color experiment, Agilent-021933 Genotypic designed Custom Staphylococcus aureus and Mus musculus 8x15k
Project description:Macrophages infected with S. aureus were subjected to gene expression profiling to undertake a complete understanding of the interaction induced gene expression changes in both, S.aureus and the RAW macrophages. Overall design: Agilent one-color experiment, Agilent-021933 Genotypic designed Custom Staphylococcus aureus and Mus musculus 8x15k
Project description:Methyl 3,4,5-trimethoxycinnamate (MTC) is a bioactive natural phenylpropanoid. We evaluated anti-inflammatory effects of synthetic MTC in RAW264.7 macrophages and RAW264.7-3T3-L1 adipocytes co-culture. Levels of cytokines and chemokines, as well as NO and PGE2 in cell supernatants were analysed using ELISAs, Griess assay and enzyme immunoassays, respectively. In-cell cytoblot was used to assess levels of proteins; while DNA binding and reporter gene assays were used to measure transcription factor DNA binding and transcriptional activities, respectively. Glucose uptake in adipocytes was evaluated with 2-deoxy-2-[(7-nitro-2, 1, 3-benzoxadiazol-4-yl) amino]-D-glucose uptake. MTC (5-20 µM) suppressed LPS?+?IFN?-induced release of TNF?, IL-6 and IL-1?, as well as NO/iNOS and PGE2/COX-2 levels in RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, there was a reduction in phospho-I?B and phospho-p65 proteins, accompanied by a reduction in total I?B in RAW264.7 cells. Further studies showed that MTC also produced a reduction in NF-?B DNA binding and luciferase activity. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with MTC (5-20 µM) resulted in enhanced DNA binding of Nrf2 and an increase in ARE-luciferase activity. In a macrophage-adipocyte co-culture, the compound reduced the release of TNF?, IL-6, IL-1?, MCP-1 and RANTES, while enhancing glucose uptake and activation of AMPK?. Our results suggest that MTC produced anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities in macrophages. MTC also prevented inflammation in macrophage-adipocyte co-culture. The effect of MTC on glucose uptake in adipocytes is proposed to be linked to activation of AMPK.
Project description:Macrophages play pivotal roles in host defense and immune homeostasis, which have two major functional polarization states, the classically activated M1 and the alternatively activated M2. Interleukin (IL)-17A is an immune modulator able to shape macrophage phenotypes. Wnt/?-catenin is a developmental signaling pathway that plays crucial roles in morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis, which has also been recently demonstrated playing roles in immune regulation. A growing amount of evidence suggests that both Wnt and IL-17A signaling are involved in macrophage polarization. However, their interaction in macrophage polarization remains elusive. The aim of present study was to explore impacts of Wnt/?-catenin on IL-17A-mediated macrophage M1/M2 polarization in murine monocyte/macrophage-like cell line RAW264.7. Results revealed that IL-17A activated Wnt/?-catenin signaling and induced macrophage M1 polarization, but inhibited M2 polarization. In contrast, the activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling led to the inhibition of M1 macrophage polarization but the promotion of M2 polarization. Importantly, the activation of Wnt/?-catenin also showed abilities to inhibit the IL-17A-induced M1 macrophage polarization while diminishing the IL-17A-inhibited M2 polarization. Molecular analysis further uncovered that the JAK/STAT signaling pathway was involved in the interaction of Wnt/?-catenin and IL-17A in the modulation of macrophage polarization. These results suggested that the Wnt/?-catenin signaling modulated IL-17A-altered macrophage polarization in part by regulating the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. This study thus revealed a novel function of Wnt/?-catenin signaling in regulating IL-17A-altered macrophage polarization.
Project description:Impact of redox active transition metals on activation of cell death signaling in plant cells have been documented to date. We have recently reported that GC-rich DNA oligomers with high affinity for binding of copper and catalytic activity for removal of ROS as novel plant cell-protecting agents. Here, we show that similar DNA oligomers protect the mouse macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells from copper-induced cell death, suggesting that the phenomenon firstly observed in plant model can be expanded to a wider range of cells and/or organisms including mammalian cells.
Project description:Pyroptosis, a type of inflammatory cell death, is dependent on the inflammatory caspase-mediated cleavage of gasdermin D (GSDMD), and the subsequent pore formation on plasma membranes through which interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-18 are released from cells. During proinflammatory activation, macrophages shift their metabolism from aerobic oxidative phosphorylation to anaerobic glycolysis. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1? is involved in the induction of IL-1? gene expression as well as the metabolic shift towards glycolysis. However, the relationships between pyroptosis and glycolysis, as well as between pyroptosis and HIF1? are poorly investigated. Here we show that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation of RAW264.7 murine macrophage cells results in pyroptosis when cells are cultured in high glucose medium. During pyroptosis, HIF1? activation occurs transiently followed by downregulation to sub-basal levels. HIF1? downregulation and pyroptosis are observed when cells are stimulated with LPS under high glucose conditions. We also found that intracellular levels of methylglyoxal (MGO), a side product of glycolysis, increase when cells are stimulated with LPS under high glucose conditions. The addition of glycolysis inhibitor and rapamycin suppresses HIF1? downregulation and pyroptosis. These results show that glycolysis plays a crucial role not only in pro-inflammatory activation, but also in pyroptosis in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.
Project description:Inflammation is critical for the development of obesity-associated metabolic disorders. This study aims to investigate the role of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 2 (MKP-2) in inflammation during macrophage-adipocyte interaction.White adipose tissues (WAT) from mice either on a high-fat diet (HFD) or normal chow (NC) were isolated to examine the expression of MKP-2. Murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 stably expressing MKP-2 was used to study the regulation of MKP-2 in macrophages in response to saturated free fatty acid (FFA) and its role in macrophage M1/M2 activation. Macrophage-adipocyte co-culture system was employed to investigate the role of MKP-2 in regulating inflammation during adipocyte-macrophage interaction. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)- and p38-specific inhibitors were used to examine the mechanisms by which MKP-2 regulates macrophage activation and macrophage-adipocytes interaction.HFD changed the expression of MKP-2 in WAT, and MKP-2 was highly expressed in the stromal vascular cells (SVCs). MKP-2 inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines in response to FFA stimulation in macrophages. MKP-2 inhibited macrophage M1 activation through JNK and p38. In addition, overexpression of MKP-2 in macrophages suppressed inflammation during macrophage-adipocyte interaction.MKP-2 is a negative regulator of macrophage M1 activation through JNK and p38 and inhibits inflammation during macrophage-adipocyte interaction.
Project description:Helicobacter pylori at multiplicity of infection (MOI ? 50) have been shown to cause apoptosis in RAW264.7 monocytic macrophage cells. Because chronic gastric infection by H. pylori results in the persistence of macrophages in the host's gut, it is likely that H. pylori is present at low to moderate, rather than high numbers in the infected host. At present, the effect of low-MOI H. pylori infection on macrophage has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the genome-wide transcriptional regulation of H. pylori-infected RAW264.7 cells at MOI 1, 5 and 10 in the absence of cellular apoptosis. Microarray data revealed up- and down-regulation of 1341 and 1591 genes, respectively. The expression of genes encoding for DNA replication and cell cycle-associated molecules, including Aurora-B kinase (AurkB) were down-regulated. Immunoblot analysis verified the decreased expression of AurkB and downstream phosphorylation of Cdk1 caused by H. pylori infection. Consistently, we observed that H. pylori infection inhibited cell proliferation and progression through the G1/S and G2/M checkpoints. In summary, we suggest that H. pylori disrupts expression of cell cycle-associated genes, thereby impeding proliferation of RAW264.7 cells, and such disruption may be an immunoevasive strategy utilized by H. pylori.
Project description:Melioidosis is a severe and fatal tropical zoonosis, which is triggered by Burkholderia pseudomallei. To better understand the host's response to infection of B. pseudomallei, an RNA-Seq technology was used to confirm differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in RAW264.7 cells infected with B. pseudomallei. In total, 4668 DEGs were identified across three time points (4, 8, and 11 hours after infection). Short Time-Series Expression Miner (STEM) analysis revealed the temporal gene expression profiles and identified seven significant patterns in a total of 26 profiles. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) was utilized to confirm significantly enriched immune process-associated pathways, and 10 DEGs, including Ccl9, Ifnb1, Tnf?, Ptgs2, Tnfaip3, Zbp1, Ccl5, Ifi202b, Nfkbia, and Nfkbie, were mapped to eight immune process-associated pathways. Subsequent quantitative real-time PCR assays confirmed that the 10 DEGs were all upregulated during infection. Overall, the results showed that B. pseudomallei infection can initiate a time-series upregulation of immune process-associated DEGs in RAW264.7 macrophage cells. The discovery of this article helps us better understand the biological function of the immune process-associated genes during B. pseudomallei infection and may aid in the development of prophylaxis and treatment protocols for melioidosis.