Project description:A role for interferon (IFN) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis is inferred from the prominent IFN gene signature (IGS), but the major IFN species and its relationship to disease activity are unknown. A bioinformatic approach employing individual IFN species gene signatures to interrogate SLE microarray datasets demonstrates a putative role for numerous IFN species, with prominent expression of IFNB1 and IFNW signatures. In contrast with other SLE-affected organs, the IGS is less prominent in lupus nephritis. SLE patients with active and inactive disease have readily detectable IGS and the IGS changes synchronously with a monocyte signature but not disease activity, and is significantly related to monocyte transcripts. Monocyte over-expression of three times as many IGS transcripts as T and B cells and IGS retention in monocytes, but not T and B cells from inactive SLE patients contribute to the lack of correlation between the IGS and SLE disease activity.
Project description:IMGT®, the international ImMunoGeneTics information system® is the global reference in immunogenetics and immunoinformatics. By its creation in 1989 by Marie-Paule Lefranc (Université de Montpellier and CNRS), IMGT® marked the advent of immunoinformatics, which emerged at the interface between immunogenetics and bioinformatics. IMGT® is specialized in the immunoglobulins (IG) or antibodies, T cell receptors (TR), major histocompatibility (MH), and proteins of the IgSF and MhSF superfamilies. T cell receptors are divided into two groups, ?? and ?? TR, which express distinct TR containing either ? and ?, or ? and ? chains, respectively. The TR? locus (TRB) was recently described and annotated by IMGT® biocurators for several veterinary species, i.e., cat (Felis catus), dog (Canis lupus familiaris), ferret (Mustela putorius furo), pig (Sus scrofa), rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), and sheep (Ovis aries). The aim of the present study is to compare the genes of the TRB locus among these different veterinary species based on Homo sapiens. The results reveal that there are similarities but also differences including the number of genes by subgroup which may demonstrate duplications and/or deletions during evolution.
Project description:Systemic lupus erythematosous (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with an important clinical and biological heterogeneity. B lymphocytes appear central to the development of SLE which is characterized by the production of a large variety of autoantibodies and hypergammaglobulinemia. In mice, immature B cells from spontaneous lupus prone animals are able to produce autoantibodies when transferred into immunodeficient mice, strongly suggesting the existence of intrinsic B cell defects during lupus. In order to approach these defects in humans, we compared the peripheral B cell transcriptomas of quiescent lupus patients to normal B cell transcriptomas. When the statistical analysis is performed on the entire group of patients, the differences between patients and controls appear quite weak with only 14 mRNA genes having a false discovery rate ranging between 11 and 17%, with 6 underexpressed genes (PMEPA1, TLR10, TRAF3IP2, LDOC1L, CD1C and EGR1). However, unforced hierarchical clustering of the microarrays reveals a subgroup of lupus patients distinct from both the controls and the other lupus patients. This subgroup has no detectable clinical or immunological phenotypic peculiarity compared to the other patients, but is characterized by 1/an IL-4 signature and 2/the abnormal expression of a large set of genes with an extremely low false discovery rate, mainly pointing to the biological function of the endoplasmic reticulum, and more precisely to genes implicated in the Unfolded Protein Response, suggesting that B cells entered an incomplete BLIMP1 dependent plasmacytic differentiation which was undetectable by immunophenotyping. Thus, this microarray analysis of B cells during quiescent lupus suggests that, despite a similar lupus phenotype, different biological roads can lead to human lupus.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of human mesenchymal stem cells comparing normoxic MSCs cells with hypoxic MSCs cells. Hypoxia may inhibit senescence of MSCs during expansion. Goal was to determine the effects of hypoxia on global MSCs gene expression. Two-condition experiment, Normoxic MSCs vs. Hypoxic MSCs.
Project description:Understanding the timing and character of the expansion of Homo sapiens out of Africa is critical for inferring the colonization and admixture processes that underpin global population history. It has been argued that dispersal out of Africa had an early phase, particularly ~130-90 thousand years ago (ka), that reached only the East Mediterranean Levant, and a later phase, ~60-50?ka, that extended across the diverse environments of Eurasia to Sahul. However, recent findings from East Asia and Sahul challenge this model. Here we show that H. sapiens was in the Arabian Peninsula before 85?ka. We describe the Al Wusta-1 (AW-1) intermediate phalanx from the site of Al Wusta in the Nefud desert, Saudi Arabia. AW-1 is the oldest directly dated fossil of our species outside Africa and the Levant. The palaeoenvironmental context of Al Wusta demonstrates that H. sapiens using Middle Palaeolithic stone tools dispersed into Arabia during a phase of increased precipitation driven by orbital forcing, in association with a primarily African fauna. A Bayesian model incorporating independent chronometric age estimates indicates a chronology for Al Wusta of ~95-86?ka, which we correlate with a humid episode in the later part of Marine Isotope Stage 5 known from various regional records. Al Wusta shows that early dispersals were more spatially and temporally extensive than previously thought. Early H. sapiens dispersals out of Africa were not limited to winter rainfall-fed Levantine Mediterranean woodlands immediately adjacent to Africa, but extended deep into the semi-arid grasslands of Arabia, facilitated by periods of enhanced monsoonal rainfall.
Project description:Gene expression profile studies have identified an interferon signature in whole blood or mononuclear cell samples from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. This study was designed to determine whether specific lymphocyte and myeloid subsets freshly isolated from the blood of systemic lupus erythematosus patients demonstrated unique gene expression profiles compared to subsets isolated from healthy controls. Experiment Overall Design: The entire study included 67 samples. One CEL file was not available for SLE13_CD4
Project description:Kynureninase is a member of a large family of catalytically diverse but structurally homologous pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent enzymes known as the aspartate aminotransferase superfamily or alpha-family. The Homo sapiens and other eukaryotic constitutive kynureninases preferentially catalyze the hydrolytic cleavage of 3-hydroxy-l-kynurenine to produce 3-hydroxyanthranilate and l-alanine, while l-kynurenine is the substrate of many prokaryotic inducible kynureninases. The human enzyme was cloned with an N-terminal hexahistidine tag, expressed, and purified from a bacterial expression system using Ni metal ion affinity chromatography. Kinetic characterization of the recombinant enzyme reveals classic Michaelis-Menten behavior, with a Km of 28.3 +/- 1.9 microM and a specific activity of 1.75 micromol min-1 mg-1 for 3-hydroxy-dl-kynurenine. Crystals of recombinant kynureninase that diffracted to 2.0 A were obtained, and the atomic structure of the PLP-bound holoenzyme was determined by molecular replacement using the Pseudomonas fluorescens kynureninase structure (PDB entry 1qz9) as the phasing model. A structural superposition with the P. fluorescens kynureninase revealed that these two structures resemble the "open" and "closed" conformations of aspartate aminotransferase. The comparison illustrates the dynamic nature of these proteins' small domains and reveals a role for Arg-434 similar to its role in other AAT alpha-family members. Docking of 3-hydroxy-l-kynurenine into the human kynureninase active site suggests that Asn-333 and His-102 are involved in substrate binding and molecular discrimination between inducible and constitutive kynureninase substrates.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of human mesenchymal stem cells comparing normoxic MSCs cells with hypoxic MSCs cells. Hypoxia may inhibit senescence of MSCs during expansion. Goal was to determine the effects of hypoxia on global MSCs gene expression. Overall design: Two-condition experiment, Normoxic MSCs vs. Hypoxic MSCs.