Project description:The LIM homeobox 2 transcription factor Lhx2 is known to control crucial aspects of neural development in various species. However, its function in human neural development is still elusive. Here, we demonstrate that LHX2 plays a critical role in human neural differentiation, using human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) as a model. In hESC-derived neural progenitors (hESC-NPs), LHX2 was found to be expressed before PAX6, and co-expressed with early neural markers. Conditional ectopic expression of LHX2 promoted neural differentiation, whereas disruption of LHX2 expression in hESCs significantly impaired neural differentiation. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that LHX2 regulates neural differentiation at two levels: first, it promotes expression of PAX6 by binding to its active enhancers, and second, it attenuates BMP and WNT signaling by promoting expression of the BMP and WNT antagonist Cerberus 1 gene (CER1), to inhibit non-neural differentiation. These findings indicate that LHX2 regulates the transcription of downstream intrinsic and extrinsic molecules that are essential for early neural differentiation in human.
Project description:The TET family of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) dioxygenases plays critical roles in development by modifying DNA methylation. Using CRISPR, we inactivated the TET1 gene in H9 human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Mutant H9 hESCs remained pluripotent, even though the level of hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) decreased to 30% of that in wild-type cells. Neural differentiation induced by dual SMAD inhibitors was not significantly affected by loss of TET1 activity. However, in a morphogen-free condition, TET1 deficiency significantly reduced the generation of NESTIN+SOX1+ neuroectoderm cells from 70% in wild-type cells to 20% in mutant cells. This was accompanied by a 20-fold reduction in the expression level of PAX6 and a significant decrease in the amount of 5hmC on the PAX6 promoter. Overexpression of the TET1 catalytic domain in TET1-deficient hESCs significantly increased 5hmC levels and elevated PAX6 expression during differentiation. Consistent with these in vitro data, PAX6 expression was significantly decreased in teratomas formed by TET1-deficient hESCs. However, TET1 deficiency did not prevent the formation of neural tube-like structures in teratomas. Our results suggest that TET1 deficiency impairs the intrinsic ability of hESCs to differentiate to neuroectoderm, presumably by decreasing the expression of PAX6, a key regulator in the development of human neuroectoderm.
Project description:The potential uniformity between differentiation and therapeutic potential of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) remains debatable. We studied the gene expression profiles, pathways analysis and the ability to differentiated into neural progenitor cells (NPCs) and motor neurons (MNs) of genetically unmatched integration-free hiPSC versus hESC to highlight possible differences/similarities between them at the molecular level. We also provided the functional information of the neurons derived from the different hESCs and hiPSCs lines using the Neural Muscular Junction (NMJ) Assay. The hiPSC line was generated by transfecting human epidermal fibroblasts (HEF) with episomal DNAs expressing Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, Nanog, L-Myc and shRNA against p53. For the hESCs line, we used the NIH-approved H9 cell line. Using unsupervised clustering both hESCs and hiPSCs were clustered together implying homogeneous genetic states. The genetic profiles of hiPSCs and hESCs were clearly similar but not identical. Collectively, our data indicate close molecular similarities between genetically unmatched hESCs and hiPS in term of gene expression, and signaling pathways. Moreover, both cell types exhibited similar cholinergic motor neurons differentiation potential with marked ability of the differentiated hESCs and hiPSCs-derived MNs to induce contraction of myotubes after 4 days of co-culture.
Project description:In order to explore the role of LHX2 in neural fate determination, we performed knockdown and overexpression studies in H9. --doxycycline induced LHX2 overexpression in H9-- GFP as a control 3 days doxycyline treatment was performed samples was collected 1 day (Day4) and 13 days (Day16) post doxycyline treatment --shLHX2 in H9-- shLuc as a control samples were collected 12 days of neural induction all samples were biological duplicate
Project description:T-box 3 (Tbx3) is a member of the T-box family of genes. Mutations that result in the haploinsufficiency of TBX3 cause ulnar mammary syndrome in humans characterized by mammary gland hypoplasia as well as other congenital defects. In mice, homozygous mutations are embryonic lethal, suggesting that Tbx3 is essential for embryo development. Studies in mice have shown that Tbx3 is essential in the maintenance of mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal and in their differentiation into extraembryonic endoderm (ExEn). The role TBX3 plays in regulating human ESCs (hESCs) has not been explored. Since mouse and hESCs are known to represent distinct pluripotent states, it is important to address the role of TBX3 in hESC self-renewal and differentiation. Using overexpression and knockdown strategies, we found that TBX3 overexpression promotes hESC proliferation possibly by repressing the expression of both NF?BIB and p14(ARF) , known cell cycle regulators. During differentiation, TBX3 knockdown resulted in decreased neural rosette formation and in decreased expression of neuroepithelial and neuroectoderm markers (PAX6, LHX2, FOXG1, and RAX). Taken together, our data suggest a role for TBX3 in hESC proliferation and reveal an unrecognized novel role of TBX3 in promoting neuroepithelial differentiation. Our results suggest that TBX3 plays distinct roles in regulating self-renewal and differentiation in both hESCs and mouse ESCs.
Project description:The role of alternative splicing in self-renewal, pluripotency and tissue lineage specification of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is largely unknown. To better define these regulatory cues, we modified the H9 hESC line to allow selection of pluripotent hESCs by neomycin resistance and cardiac progenitors by puromycin resistance. Exon-level microarray expression data from undifferentiated hESCs and cardiac and neural precursors were used to identify splice isoforms with cardiac-restricted or common cardiac/neural differentiation expression patterns. Splice events for these groups corresponded to the pathways of cytoskeletal remodeling, RNA splicing, muscle specification, and cell cycle checkpoint control as well as genes with serine/threonine kinase and helicase activity. Using a new program named AltAnalyze (http://www.AltAnalyze.org), we identified novel changes in protein domain and microRNA binding site architecture that were predicted to affect protein function and expression. These included an enrichment of splice isoforms that oppose cell-cycle arrest in hESCs and that promote calcium signaling and cardiac development in cardiac precursors. By combining genome-wide predictions of alternative splicing with new functional annotations, our data suggest potential mechanisms that may influence lineage commitment and hESC maintenance at the level of specific splice isoforms and microRNA regulation.
Project description:Background and Aims:Previous studies modelling human neural crest differentiation from stem cells have resulted in a low yield of sympathetic neurons. Our aim was to optimise a method for the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to sympathetic neuron-like cells (SN) to model normal human SNS development. Results:Using stromal-derived inducing activity (SDIA) of PA6 cells plus BMP4 and B27 supplements, the H9 hESC line was differentiated to neural crest stem-like cells and SN-like cells. After 7 days of PA6 cell coculture, mRNA expression of SNAIL and SOX-9 neural crest specifier genes and the neural marker peripherin (PRPH) increased. Expression of the pluripotency marker OCT 4 decreased, whereas TP53 and LIN28B expression remained high at levels similar to SHSY5Y and IMR32 neuroblastoma cell lines. A 5-fold increase in the expression of the catecholaminergic marker tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and the noradrenergic marker dopamine betahydroxylase (DBH) was observed by day 7 of differentiation. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting for the neural crest marker p75, enriched for cells expressing p75, DBH, TH, and PRPH, was more specific than p75 neural crest stem cell (NCSC) microbeads. On day 28 post p75 sorting, dual immunofluorescence identified sympathetic neurons by PRPH and TH copositivity cells in 20% of the cell population. Noradrenergic sympathetic neurons, identified by copositivity for both PHOX2B and DBH, were present in 9.4%?±?5.5% of cells. Conclusions:We have optimised a method for noradrenergic SNS development using the H9 hESC line to improve our understanding of normal human SNS development and, in a future work, the pathogenesis of neuroblastoma.
Project description:Many different culture systems have been developed for expanding human pluripotent stem cells (hESCs and hiPSCs). In general, 4-10 ng/ml of bFGF is supplemented in culture media in feeder-dependent systems regardless of feeder cell types, whereas in feeder-free systems, up to 100 ng/ml of bFGF is required for maintaining long-term culture on various substrates. The amount of bFGF required in native hESCs growth niche is unclear. Here we report using inactivated adipose-derived human mesenchymal stem cells as feeder cells to examine long-term parallel cultures of two hESCs lines (H1 and H9) and one hiPSCs line (DF19-9-7T) in media supplemented with 0, 0.4 or 4 ng/ml of bFGF for up to 23 passages, as well as parallel cultures of H9 and DF19 in media supplemented with 4, 20 or 100 ng/ml bFGF for up to 13 passages for comparison. Across all cell lines tested, bFGF supplement demonstrated inhibitory effect over growth expansion, single cell colonization and recovery from freezing in a dosage dependent manner. In addition, bFGF exerted differential effects on different cell lines, inducing H1 and DF19 differentiation at 4 ng/ml or higher, while permitting long-term culture of H9 at the same concentrations with no apparent dosage effect. Pluripotency was confirmed for all cell lines cultured in 0, 0.4 or 4 ng/ml bFGF excluding H1-4 ng, as well as H9 cultured in 4, 20 and 100 ng/ml bFGF. However, DF19 demonstrated similar karyotypic abnormality in both 0 and 4 ng/ml bFGF media while H1 and H9 were karyotypically normal in 0 ng/ml bFGF after long-term culture. Our results indicate that exogenous bFGF exerts dosage and cell line dependent effect on human pluripotent stem cells cultured on mesenchymal stem cells, and implies optimal use of bFGF in hESCs/hiPSCs culture should be based on specific cell line and its culture system.
Project description:The LIM homeobox 2 (Lhx2) transcription factor Lhx2 has a variety of functions, including neural induction, morphogenesis, and hematopoiesis. Here we show the involvement of Lhx2 in osteoclast differentiation. Lhx2 was strongly expressed in osteoclast precursor cells but its expression was significantly reduced during receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclastogenesis. Overexpression of Lhx2 in bone marrow-derived monocyte/macrophage lineage cells (BMMs), which are osteoclast precursor cells, attenuated RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation by inhibiting the induction of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1). Interestingly, interaction of Lhx2 proteins with c-Fos attenuated the DNA-binding ability of c-Fos and thereby inhibited the transactivation of NFATc1. Furthermore, Lhx2 conditional knockout mice exhibited an osteoporotic bone phenotype, which was related with increased osteoclast formation in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that Lhx2 acts as a negative regulator of osteoclast formation in vitro and in vivo. The anti-osteoclastogenic effect of Lhx2 may be useful for developing a therapeutic strategy for bone disease.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have huge potential for establishment of disease models and for treating degenerative diseases. However, the extremely low survival level of dissociated hESCs following cryopreservation is been a tremendous problem to allow for their rapid expansion, genetic manipulation and future medical applications. In this study, we have aimed to develop an efficient strategy to improve survival of dissociated hESCs after cryopreservation. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Human embryonic stem cells (H9 line), dissociated into single cells, were cryopreserved using the slow-freezing method. Viable cells and their colony numbers in culture after cryopreservation were evaluated when treated with protein kinase A inhibitor H89. Western blotting was carried out to investigate mechanisms of low survival levels of dissociated hESCs following cryopreservation. Immunofluorescence, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), in vitro and in vivo differentiation were performed to testify to pluripotency and differentiation ability of hte cryopreserved cells treated with H89. RESULTS:H89 significantly improved survival level of dissociated hESCs after cryopreservation through ROCK inhibition. H89-treated cells still maintained their pluripotency and differentiation capacity. CONCLUSIONS:This new approach for cryopreservation of single hESCs, using H89, can promote potential use of hESCs in regenerative medicine in the future.