Project description:Breast milk is a complex liquid that enriched in immunological components and affect the development of the infant immune system. Exosomes, the membranous vesicles of endocytic origin, are ubiquitously in various body fluids which can mediate intercellular communication. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a well-defined group of non-coding small RNAs, in human breast milk are packaged inside exosomes. Here, we present the identification of miRNAs in human breast milk exosomes using deep sequencing technology. We found that the immune-related miRNAs are enriched in breast milk exosomes, and are resistant to the general harsh conditions. Four small RNA libraries in human breast milk exosomes from four healthy women (30 +/- 0.9 years old, primiparity) when the infant were aged at 60 days were sequenced.
Project description:Breast milk is the primary source of nutrition for newborns, and rich in immunological components. microRNAs (miRNAs), a well-defined group of non-coding small RNAs, are present in various body fluids (such as breast milk), which are selectively packaged inside the exosomes, a type of membrane vesicles, secreted by most cell types. These exosomal miRNAs could be actively delivered into recipient cells, and regulate target gene expression and recipient cell function. We present the lactation-related miRNA expression profiles in porcine milk exosomes across entire lactation period in pig industry (newborn to 28 days after birth) using deep sequencing technology. We found that the immune-related miRNAs are presented and enriched in breast milk exosomes, and generally resistant to relatively harsh conditions. Notably, these exosomal miRNAs exhibited the higher abundances in the colostrum (newborn to 3 days after birth) than that in the mature milk (7 to 28 days after birth), as well as in the serum of colostrum-feeding piglets compared with the only mature milk-feeding piglets. These immune-related miRNAs-loaded exosomes in breast milk may be transferred into the infant body via the digestive tract. These observations are prelude to the in-depth investigations of the essential roles of the breast milk in the development of the infant’s immune system. Eight small RNA libraries in porcine breast milk exosomes of six lactigenous stages (0, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after birth) from three female pigs were sequenced.
Project description:The breast milk plays a crucial role in shaping the initial intestinal microbiota and mucosal immunity of the infant. Interestingly, breastfeeding has proven to be protective against the early onset of immune-mediated diseases including type 1 diabetes (T1D). Studies have shown that exosomes from human breast milk (HM) are enriched in immune-modulating miRNAs suggesting that exosomal miRNAs transferred to the infant could play a critical role in the development of the infant’s immune system. In this study, we extracted exosome exosomal microRNAs (exomiRs) from breast milk of type 1 diabetic and healthy lactating mothers, in order to identify any differences in the exomiR content between the two groups
Project description:Milk contains fats, carbohydrates, proteins, RNAs and enzymes, but also mRNA and microRNAs(miRNA), which plays an important role in neonatal innate and adaptive immunity. The following study investigates whether or not miRNA of exosome in milk is a vital pathway for miRNA of milk absorbing. Briefly, 280 pre-miRNAs and 326 mature miRNA were found. 37 exosomal miRNAs were upregulated (twice fold) compared to miRNAs found outside the exosomes. Among these miRNAs, ssc-miR-193a-3p’s expression was up regulated 1467.35 times, while ssc-miR-423-5p、ssc-miR-551a、ssc-miR-138、ssc-miR-1 and ssc-miR-124a were highly concentrated and upregulated from 13.58 to 30.06 times. Moreover, all of these miRNAs play essential roles in cell’s development and basic physiology processes in immune system. Following the analysis of target gene prediction and related signaling pathways, 9262 target genes showed to be mainly concentrated on three signaling pathway: metabolic pathways、pathways in cancer, and Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase /Protein Kinase B(PI3K/Akt) signaling pathways. In addition, more than 20 miRNAs showed to be highly concentrated on exosomes, such as MECP2、GYS1、 LRRC8A、BCL9L、PHRF1 and ELOVL1, all closely related to immunity and engendering of gene. After performing in-depth research on miRNA’s localization, distribution and function related metabolism, we found that these exosome concentrated miRNA’s target genes were interrelated to development and basic cell functions, like metabolism and immunity. These results imply that miRNAs in breast milk can influence offspring via milk exosomes. Overall design: Three Experimental swine milk. Small intestine of piglets at 31 days old was collected from Pig Breeding Farm in Chongqing Academy of Animal Science, China. Exosome were collected from the swine milk. Three individuals were randomly selected for biological replicates.
Project description:Introduction: microRNAs are promising candidate breast cancer biomarkers due to their cancer-specific expression profiles. However, efforts to develop circulating breast cancer biomarkers are challenged by the heterogeneity of microRNAs in the blood. To overcome this challenge, we aimed to develop a molecular profile of microRNAs specifically secreted from breast cancer cells. Our first step towards this direction relates to capturing and analyzing the contents of exosomes, which are small secretory vesicles that selectively encapsulate microRNAs indicative of their cell of origin. To our knowledge, circulating exosome microRNAs have not been well evaluated as biomarkers for breast cancer diagnosis or monitoring. Methods: Exosomes were collected from the conditioned media of human breast cancer cell lines, mouse plasma of patient-derived orthotopic xenograft models (PDX), and human plasma samples. Exosomes were verified by electron microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis, and western blot. Cellular and exosome microRNAs from breast cancer cell lines were profiled by next-generation small RNA sequencing. Plasma exosome microRNA expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR analysis. Results: Small RNA sequencing and qRT-PCR analysis showed that several microRNAs are selectively encapsulated or highly enriched in breast cancer exosomes. Importantly, the selectively enriched exosome microRNA, human miR-1246, was detected at significantly higher levels in exosomes isolated from PDX mouse plasma, indicating that tumor exosome microRNAs are released into the circulation and can serve as plasma biomarkers for breast cancer. This observation was extended to human plasma samples where miR-1246 and miR-21 were detected at significantly higher levels in the plasma exosomes of 16 breast cancer patients as compared to the plasma exosomes of healthy control subjects. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis indicated that the combination of plasma exosome miR-1246 and miR-21 levels is a better indicator of breast cancer than their individual levels. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that certain microRNA species, such as miR-21 and miR-1246, are selectively enriched in human breast cancer exosomes and significantly elevated in the plasma of breast cancer patients. These findings indicate a potential new strategy to selectively analyze plasma breast cancer microRNAs indicative of the presence of breast cancer. Overall design: The small RNA in the cells and exosomes of the normal mammary epithelial cell line (MCF10A) and two breast cancer cell lines (MCF7 and MDA-MB-231) were analyzed by Next Gen RNA Sequencing.
Project description:Purpose:To present the miRNA expression profiles in giant panda milk exosomes across five lactation stages (0, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days after birth), aiming to provide new information for investigations into the physiological functions of the giant panda milk Methods: Three females were sampled in all, and each individual were sampled over multiple lactations, including 0, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days after delivery. Breast milk samples (5-10 ml) were collected from each stages. Total RNA isolated from individuals in five lactation stages (0, 7, 15 and 30 days after delivery) were pooled in equal quantities for each stage Results: Here, we illustrated the species and expression characteristics of exosome-loaded miRNAs existing in giant panda breast milk during distinct lactation periods, and highlighted the enrichment of immune- and development-related endogenous miRNAs in colostral and mature giant panda milk, which are stable even in certain hash conditions, like low pH and high concentration of RNAase, by the protection of extracellular vesicles.These findings indicate that breast milk may allow dietary intake of maternal miRNAs by infants for the regulation of postnatal development. We also demonstrated that the exogenous plant miRNA from the primary food source of giant panda (bamboo) were detected in the exosomes of giant panda breast milk, which were predicted to be of regulatory role in basic cell metabolism and neuron development. This result suggested that the dietary plant miRNAs were able to be absorbed by host cell and then secreted to body fluids as potential cross-kingdom regulators. Conclusions: Exosomal miRNAs in the giant panda breast milk may be the crucial maternal regulators for the development of intrinsic ‘slink’ newborn cubs. Overall design: Three females were sampled in all, and each individual were sampled over multiple lactations, including 0, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days after delivery. Breast milk samples (5-10 ml) were collected from each stages. Total RNA isolated from individuals in five lactation stages (0, 7, 15 and 30 days after delivery) were pooled in equal quantities for each stage.
Project description:Milk is an essential source of nutrients to all mammalian offspring, and is rich in a wide variety of immunological components. Recently reported miRNAs that are present in breast milk and are selectively packaged into the exosomes, a type of membrane vesicles, secreted by most cell types. These exosomal miRNAs could be actively delivered into recipient cells, and play a key role in the regulation of innate and adaptive immunity. In the present study we analyzed the lactation-related miRNA expression profiles in bovine milk exosomes at 2 days post-infection with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) using a deep sequencing. Analyzing over 76.44 million sequencing reads, a total of 720 miRNAs including 303 high-confident miRNA candidates were identified by two different approaches. The top 10 highly expressed miRNAs accounted for approximately 80% of all aligned reads, with the remaining miRNAs showing much lower expression. Bta-miR-101, -142-5p, -183, -2285g-3p, -223 and -99a-5p were significantly differentially regulated in S. aureus infected milk compared to their uninfected controls. Target prediction of the differently expressed miRNAs revealed 219 potential target candidates, and 22 unique target genes identified by David Gene Ontology analysis were significantly related to host immune processes and inflammation. This new knowledge of milk miRNA expression in response to S. aureus infection significantly provides new and comprehensive information on milk miRNA composition in general as well as changes occurring during an infection. Overall design: Four exosomal small RNA libraries were constructed from S. aureus infected bovine breast milk at 2 days post-infection (dpi), and correspondingly four libraries from bovine milk prior to infection were used as controls. They were named control (1, 2, 3 and 4) and infection (1, 2, 3 and 4), respectively.
Project description:Background: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a natural compound with anticancer and anti-angiogenesis activity that is currently under investigation as both a preventative agent and an adjuvant to breast cancer therapy. However, the precise mechanisms of DHA’s anticancer activities are unclear. It is understood that the intercommunication between cancer cells and their microenvironment is essential to tumor angiogenesis. Exosomes are extracellular vesicles that are important mediators of intercellular communication and play a role in promoting angiogenesis. However, very little is known about the contribution of breast cancer exosomes to tumor angiogenesis or whether exosomes can mediate DHA’s anticancer action. Results: Exosomes were collected from MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells after treatment with DHA. We observed an increase in exosome secretion and exosome microRNA contents from the DHA-treated cells. The expression of 83 microRNAs in the MCF7 exosomes was altered by DHA (>2-fold). The most abundant exosome microRNAs (let-7a, miR-23b, miR-27a/b, miR-21, let-7, and miR-320b) are known to have anti-cancer and/or anti-angiogenic activity. These microRNAs were also increased by DHA treatment in the exosomes from other breast cancer lines (MDA-MB-231, ZR751 and BT20), but not in exosomes from normal breast cells (MCF10A). When DHA-treated MCF7 cells were co-cultured with or their exosomes were directly applied to endothelial cell cultures, we observed an increase in the expression of these microRNAs in the endothelial cells. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-23b and miR-320b in endothelial cells decreased the expression of their pro-angiogenic target genes (PLAU, AMOTL1, NRP1 and ETS2) and significantly inhibited tube formation by endothelial cells, suggesting that the microRNAs transferred by exosomes mediate DHA’s anti-angiogenic action. These effects could be reversed by knockdown of the Rab GTPase, Rab27A, which controls exosome release. Conclusions: We conclude that DHA alters breast cancer exosome secretion and microRNA contents, which leads to the inhibition of angiogenesis. Our data demonstrate that breast cancer exosome signaling can be targeted to inhibit tumor angiogenesis and provide new insight into DHA’s anticancer action, further supporting its use in cancer therapy. Examination of small RNA populations in MCF7 cells and exosomes after DHA treatment.
Project description:The goal of this study is to report that breast cancer associated exosomes contain microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with the RISC Loading Complex (RLC) and display cell-independent capacity to process precursor microRNAs (pre-miRNAs) into mature miRNAs. Pre-miRNAs, along with Dicer, AGO2, and TRBP, are present in exosomes of cancer cells. CD43 mediates the accumulation of Dicer specifically in cancer exosomes. Cancer exosomes mediate an efficient and rapid silencing of mRNAs to reprogram the target cell transcriptome. Exosomes derived from cells and sera of patients with breast cancer instigate non-tumorigenic epithelial cells to form tumors in a Dicer-dependent manner. These findings offer opportunities for the development of exosomes based biomarkers and therapies. Exosomes from cancer cells were isolated using established ultracentrifugation methods. The global miRNA content of non-tumorigenic cells was investigated before and after exosomes treatment to study the role of microRNA biogenesis in exosomes for cancer progression and the transformation process of normal cells.