Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 20120629 29
The general pathways of eukaryotic mRNA decay occur via deadenylation followed by 3' to 5' degradation or decapping, although some endonuclease sites have been identified in metazoan mRNAs. To determine the role of endonucleases in mRNA degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we mapped 5' monophosphate ends on mRNAs in wild-type and dcp2 xrn1 yeast cells, wherein mRNA endonuclease cleavage products are stabilized. This led to three important observations. First, only few mRNAs that undergo low- ...[more]
Project description:The general pathways of eukaryotic mRNA decay occur via deadenylation followed by 3’ to 5’ degradation or decapping, although some endonuclease sites have been identified in metazoan mRNAs. To determine the role of endonucleases in mRNA degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we mapped 5’ monophosphate ends on mRNAs in wild-type and dcp2∆ xrn1∆ yeast cells, wherein mRNA endonuclease cleavage products are stabilized. This led to three important observations. First, only few mRNAs that undergo low level endonucleotyic cleavage were observed suggesting that endonucleases are not a major contributor to yeast mRNA decay. Second, independent of known decapping enzymes, we observed low levels of 5’ monophosphates on some mRNAs suggesting that an unknown mechanism can generate 5' exposed ends, although for all substrates tested Dcp2 was the primary decapping enzyme. Finally, we identified debranched lariat intermediates from intron-containing genes, demonstrating a significant discard pathway for mRNAs during the second step of pre-mRNA splicing, which is a potential new step to regulate gene expression. 5' monophosphorylated ends of poly(A) RNA from wild-type and dcp2D xrn1D strains were identified in duplicates and triplicates, respectively.
Project description:Using RNA-Seq analysis of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) mutant strains, we show that many Saccharomyces cerevisiae intron-containing genes exhibit usage of alternative splice sites, but most transcripts generated by splicing from these sites are non-functional because they introduce premature termination codons leading to transcript degradation by NMD. Analysis of splicing mutants combined with NMD inactivation revealed the role of specific splicing factors in governing the use of these alternative splice sites and identified novel functions for Prp17p in enhancing the use of branchpoint-proximal upstream 3’ splice sites and for Prp18p in suppressing the usage of a non-canonical AUG 3’-splice site. The use of non-productive alternative splice sites can limit the expression of some transcripts and can be increased in stress conditions in a promoter-dependent manner, contributing to the down-regulation of genes during stress. These results reveal that alternative splicing is frequent in S.cerevisiae but masked by RNA degradation and that the use of alternative splice sites is mostly aimed at controlling transcript levels rather than increasing proteome diversity. mRNA-Seq profiling of 3 mutants in the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway and wildtype yeast
Project description:We investigated the genome-wide distribution of Okazaki fragments in the commonly used laboratory Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain S288C to study the DNA replication model adopted by the budding yeast. The method based upon lambda exonuclease digestion for purification of RNA-primed replication intermediates was first improved to be suitable for the purification of Okazaki fragments. Then, we used this improved method to purify Okazaki fragments from S288C yeast cells, followed by Illumina sequencing. We found that the expected asymmetric distribution of Okazaki fragments around confirmed replication origins, which was derived from the semi-discontinuous DNA replication model, was not observed on S. cerevisiae chromosomes. Even around two highly efficient replication origins, ARS522 and ARS416, the ratios of Okazaki fragments on both strands were inconsistent with the semi-discontinuous DNA replication model. Our study supported the discontinuous DNA replication model. Besides, we also observed that Okazaki fragments were overpresented in the transcribed regions in S. cerevisiae mitochondrial genome, which indicated the interplay between transcription and DNA replication. Examination of the distribution of Okazaki fragments in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain S288C.
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series:; GSE12220: Changes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mRNA abundance following oxidative stress and DNA damage stress; GSE12221: Decay profiles of Saccharomyces cerevisiae mRNAs following oxidative stress and DNA damage Experiment Overall Design: Refer to individual Series
Project description:Total RNA versus genomic DNA hybridization on custom arrays designed for all Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes Overall design: Total RNA was collected in mid-log phase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells grown in rich medium (abbreviated CM, in house recipe). RNA was then converted to cDNA, Cy3-labeled and hybridized competitively against Cy5 labeled genomic DNA from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.