Project description:Cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., represents the world's most important staple food crop, feeding more than half of the human population. Despite this essential role in world agriculture, the history of cultivated rice's domestication from its wild ancestor, Oryza rufipogon, remains unclear. In this study, DNA sequence variation in three gene regions is examined in a phylogeographic approach to investigate the domestication of cultivated rice. Results indicate that India and Indochina may represent the ancestral center of diversity for O. rufipogon. Additionally, the data suggest that cultivated rice was domesticated at least twice from different O. rufipogon populations and that the products of these two independent domestication events are the two major rice varieties, Oryza sativa indica and Oryza sativa japonica. Based on this geographical analysis, O. sativa indica was domesticated within a region south of the Himalaya mountain range, likely eastern India, Myanmar, and Thailand, whereas O. sativa japonica was domesticated from wild rice in southern China.
Project description:To evaluate the roles of gene regulation in Oryza sativa leaf, dynamic profiles of transcriptome were investigated in Oryza sativa L. spp. indica with different treatments, the aerial tissues of one-month-old plants from four different areas (groups 1–4) were treated with 0, 40 mL of 25% azoxystrobin, 0.01 g of VdAL, or 40 mL of 25% azoxystrobin plus 0.01 g VdAL, respectively. Overall design: Using high-throughput sequencing technology to reveal the characteristic of transcriptome during Oryza sativa leaf development.
Project description:Glycoside Hydrolase 3 (GH3), a member of the Auxin-responsive gene family, is involved in plant growth, the plant developmental process, and various stress responses. The GH3 gene family has been well-studied in Arabidopsis thaliana and Zea mays. However, the evolution of the GH3 gene family in Oryza species remains unknown and the function of the GH3 gene family in Oryza sativa is not well-documented. Here, a systematic analysis was performed in six Oryza species/subspecies, including four wild rice species and two cultivated rice subspecies. A total of 13, 13, 13, 13, 12, and 12 members were identified in O. sativa ssp. japonica, O. sativa ssp. indica, Oryza rufipogon, Oryza nivara, Oryza punctata, and Oryza glumaepatula, respectively. Gene duplication events, structural features, conserved motifs, a phylogenetic analysis, chromosome locations, and Ka/Ks ratios of this important family were found to be strictly conservative across these six Oryza species/subspecies, suggesting that the expansion of the GH3 gene family in Oryza species might be attributed to duplication events, and this expansion could occur in the common ancestor of Oryza species, even in common ancestor of rice tribe (Oryzeae) (23.07~31.01 Mya). The RNA-seq results of different tissues displayed that OsGH3 genes had significantly different expression profiles. Remarkably, the qRT-PCR result after NaCl treatment indicated that the majority of OsGH3 genes play important roles in salinity stress, especially OsGH3-2 and OsGH3-8. This study provides important insights into the evolution of the GH3 gene family in Oryza species and will assist with further investigation of OsGH3 genes' functions under salinity stress.
Project description:In this study, we examined the transcriptome dynamics within the matured fully expanded rice leaf and used strand-specific RNA sequencing to generate a comprehensive transcriptome dataset for the mature rice leaf. The rice Nipponbare (Oryza sativa l. japonica) seedlings were grown in the greenhouse. About 20 days after planting, the fully opened 4th leaves was cut it into seven 3-cm segments, from bottom to tip and labeled as sections 1 to 7, respectively. The tissues were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen for total RNA extraction. Two biological replicates were collected for each section. Note: All samples in SRA were assigned the same sample accession (SRS685294). This is incorrect as there are different samples, hence â??Source Nameâ?? was replaced with new values. Comment[ENA_SAMPLE] contains the original SRA sample accessions.
Project description:Flower organ patterning is accomplished by spatial and temporal functioning of various regulatory genes. We previously reported that Oryza sativa VIN3-LIKE 2 (OsVIL2) induces flowering by mediating the trimethylation of Histone H3 on LFL1 chromatin. In this study, we report that OsVIL2 also plays crucial roles during spikelet development. Two independent lines of T-DNA insertional mutants in the gene displayed altered organ numbers and abnormal morphology in all spikelet organs. Scanning electron microscopy showed that osvil2 affected organ primordia formation during early spikelet development. Expression analysis revealed that OsVIL2 is expressed in all stages of the spikelet developmental. Transcriptome analysis of developing spikelets revealed that several regulatory genes involved in that process and the formation of floral organs were down-regulated in osvil2. These results suggest that OsVIL2 is required for proper expression of the regulatory genes that control floral organ number and morphology.
Project description:Bioinformatic approaches have complemented experimental efforts to inventorize plant miRNA targets. We carried out global computational analysis of rice (Oryza sativa) transcriptome to generate a comprehensive list of putative miRNA targets. Our predictions (684 unique transcripts) showed that rice miRNAs mediate regulation of diverse functions including transcription (41%), catalysis (28%), binding (18%), and transporter activity (11%). Among the predicted targets, 61.7% hits were in coding regions and nearly 72% targets had a solitary miRNA hit. The study predicted more than 70 novel targets of 34 miRNAs putatively regulating functions like stress-response, catalysis, and binding. It was observed that more than half (55%) of the targets were conserved between O. sativa indica and O. sativa japonica. Members of 31 miRNA families were found to possess conserved targets between rice and at least one of other grass family members. About 44% of the unique targets were common between two dissimilar miRNA prediction algorithms. Such an extent of cross-species conservation and algorithmic consensus confers confidence in the list of rice miRNA targets predicted in this study.
Project description:Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient that is frequently inaccessible to plants. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants employ the Combined Strategy for Fe uptake, which is composed by all features of Strategy II, common to all Poaceae species, and some features of Strategy I, common to non-Poaceae species. To understand the evolution of Fe uptake mechanisms, we analyzed the root transcriptomic response to Fe deficiency in O. sativa and its wild progenitor O. rufipogon. We identified 622 and 2,017 differentially expressed genes in O. sativa and O. rufipogon, respectively. Among the genes up-regulated in both species, we found Fe transporters associated with Strategy I, such as IRT1, IRT2 and NRAMP1; and genes associated with Strategy II, such as YSL15 and IRO2. In order to evaluate the conservation of these Strategies among other Poaceae, we identified the orthologs of these genes in nine species from the Oryza genus, maize and sorghum, and evaluated their expression profile in response to low Fe condition. Our results indicate that the Combined Strategy is not specific to O. sativa as previously proposed, but also present in species of the Oryza genus closely related to domesticated rice, and originated around the same time the AA genome lineage within Oryza diversified. Therefore, adaptation to Fe2+ acquisition via IRT1 in flooded soils precedes O. sativa domestication.
Project description:During evolution, various processes such as duplication, divergence, recombination, and many other events leads to the evolution of new genes with novel functions. These evolutionary events, thus significantly impact the evolution of cellular, physiological, morphological, and other phenotypic trait of organisms. While evolving, eukaryotes have acquired large number of genes from the earlier prokaryotes. This work is focused upon identification of old "prokaryotic" proteins in Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa genome, further highlighting their possible role(s) in the two genomes. Our results suggest that with respect to their genome size, the fraction of old "prokaryotic" proteins is higher in Arabidopsis than in Oryza sativa. The large fractions of such proteins encoding genes were found to be localized in various endo-symbiotic organelles. The domain architecture of the old "prokaryotic" proteins revealed similar distribution in both Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa genomes showing their conserved evolution. In Oryza sativa, the old "prokaryotic" proteins were more involved in developmental processes, might be due to constant man-made selection pressure for better agronomic traits/productivity. While in Arabidopsis, these proteins were involved in metabolic functions. Overall, the analysis indicates the distinct pattern of evolution of old "prokaryotic" proteins in Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa.
Project description:Flavonoids are naturally active substances that form a large class of phenolic compounds abundant in certain foods. Black rice (Oryza sativa L.) contains high levels of anthocyanin polyphenols, which have beneficial effects on health owing to their antioxidant properties. The breakdown of collagenous networks with aging or skin deterioration results in the impairment of wound healing in the skin. Accordingly, reviving stagnant collagen synthesis can help maintain dermal homeostasis during wound healing. This study presents an assessment of the cellular activity of anthocyanins (ANT) extracted from Oryza sativa L., providing information necessary for the development of new products that support natural healing processes. The relative composition of ANT from Oryza sativa L. was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection. ANT promoted the migration of rat dermal fibroblasts (RDFs) and demonstrated antioxidant properties. ANT increased the mRNA expression of collagen type I alpha 2 (COL1A2) and upregulated type I collagen protein levels in H2O2-stimulated RDFs without cytotoxicity. Compared with the untreated group, treatment of RDFs with ANT in the presence of H2O2 led to the activation of signaling pathways, including the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and Akt, whereas it significantly (p < 0.001) inhibited the phosphorylation of I?B? and suppressed the activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) subunits, p50 and p65, which are transcription factors responsible for inflammation. Taken together, our findings suggest that ANT from Oryza sativa L. have anti-inflammatory properties and antiaging potential by modulating type I collagen gene expression and suppressing H2O2-induced NF-?B activation in skin fibroblasts.