Project description:Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, including MGCD0103 and vorinostat, have led to tumor growth inhibition and apoptosis in vivo. However, with limited single-agent activity demonstrated in solid tumor trials, we examined the potential for enhanced effects in combination with topoisomerase I and II inhibitors, a staple for treatment in refractory small cell lung cancer (SCLC). SCLC cell lines were exposed to increasing concentrations of single-agent HDAC inhibitors and topoisomerase inhibitors, in various combinations, to assess for cell viability, additivity or synergy, and apoptosis. We found that MGCD0103 and vorinostat decreased cell viability by at least 60% and 80%, respectively. In the majority of cell lines, the strongest synergism was seen when vorinostat was followed by either etoposide or topotecan; concurrent therapy led to antagonism in most cell lines. Synergistic effects were seen when MGCD0103 was given concurrently or sequentially with both amrubicin and epirubicin. Enhanced additive effects leading to caspase activation were noted for the combination of MGCD0103 or vorinostat with a topoisomerase inhibitor vs. either agent alone. Thus, the combination of HDAC inhibitors and topoisomerase inhibitors showed enhanced cytotoxic effects in SCLC cell lines. Further evaluation in a clinical setting may be warranted.
Project description:DNA damaging agents, including those used in the clinic, activate cell cycle checkpoints, which blocks entry into mitosis. Given that checkpoint override results in cell death via mitotic catastrophe, inhibitors of the DNA damage checkpoint are actively being pursued as chemosensitization agents. Here we explored the effects of gemcitabine in combination with Chk1 inhibitors in a panel of pancreatic cancer cell lines and found variable abilities to override the S phase checkpoint. In cells that were able to enter mitosis, the chromatin was extensively fragmented, as assessed by metaphase spreads and Comet assay. Notably, electron microscopy and high-resolution light microscopy showed that the kinetochores and centromeres appeared to be detached from the chromatin mass, in a manner reminiscent of mitosis with unreplicated genomes (MUGs). Cell lines that were unable to override the S phase checkpoint were able to override a G2 arrest induced by the alkylator MMS or the topoisomerase II inhibitors doxorubicin or etoposide. Interestingly, checkpoint override from the topoisomerase II inhibitors generated fragmented kinetochores (MUGs) due to unreplicated centromeres. Our studies show that kinetochore and centromere fragmentation is a defining feature of checkpoint override and suggests that loss of cell viability is due in part to acentric genomes. Furthermore, given the greater efficacy of forcing cells into premature mitosis from topoisomerase II-mediated arrest as compared with gemcitabine-mediated arrest, topoisomerase II inhibitors maybe more suitable when used in combination with checkpoint inhibitors.
Project description:Chemical diversification of type II topoisomerase (Topo II) inhibitors remains indispensable to extend their anti-tumor therapeutic values which are limited by their side effects. Herein, we designed and synthesized a novel series of benzimidazole-chalcone hybrids (BCHs). These BCHs showed good inhibitory effect in the Topo II mediated DNA relaxation assay and anti-proliferative effect in 4 tumor cell lines. 4d and 4n were the most potent, with IC50 values less than 5 ?M, superior to etoposide. Mechanistic studies indicated that the BCHs functioned as non-intercalative Topo II catalytic inhibitors. Moreover, 4d and 4n demonstrated versatile properties against tumors, including inhibition on the colony formation and cell migration, and promotion of apoptosis of A549 cells. The structure-activity relationship and molecular docking analysis suggested possible contribution of the chalcone motif to the Topo II inhibitory and anti-proliferative potency. These results indicated that 4d and 4n could be promising lead compounds for further anti-tumor drug research.
Project description:Strategies to ameliorate the flaws of current chemotherapeutic agents, while maintaining potent anticancer activity, are of particular interest. Agents which can modulate multiple targets may have superior utility and fewer side effects than current single-target drugs. To explore the prospect in cancer therapy of a bivalent agent that combines two complementary chemo-active groups within a single molecular architecture, we have synthesized dual-acting histone deacetylase and topoisomerase II inhibitors. These dual-acting agents are derived from suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and anthracycline daunorubicin, prototypical histone deacetylase (HDAC) and topoisomerase II (Topo II) inhibitors, respectively. We report herein that these agents present the signatures of inhibition of HDAC and Topo II in both cell-free and whole-cell assays. Moreover, these agents potently inhibit the proliferation of representative cancer cell lines.
Project description:Topoisomerases catalyse the interconversion of topological isomers of DNA and have key roles in nucleic acid metabolism. Human cells express two distinct type II topoisomerase isozymes, designated topoisomerase II alpha (170 kDa form) and topoisomerase II beta (180 kDa form). We have isolated cDNA clones encoding the beta isozyme from a human B-cell library. The proposed coding region for the topoisomerase II beta protein is 4,863 nucleotides long and would encode a polypeptide with a calculated M(r) of 182,705. The predicted topoisomerase II beta protein sequence shows striking similarity (72% identical residues) to that of the human alpha isozyme, and homology to topoisomerase II proteins from Drosophila, yeast and bacteria. Regions of greatest amino acid sequence divergence lie at the extreme N-terminus and over a C-terminal domain comprising approximately 25% of the total protein. We have quantified the level of topoisomerase II beta mRNA in a panel of human tumour cell lines of different origin using an RNase protection assay, and compared the level to that of topoisomerase II alpha mRNA. Topoisomerase II beta mRNA was expressed in haemopoietic, epithelial and fibroblast cell lines, although to different extents, with U937 cells (promonocytic leukaemia) showing a particularly high level. There was no obvious relationship in terms of level of expression between the topoisomerase II alpha and beta genes. We have localised the gene encoding topoisomerase II beta protein to chromosome 3p24 in the human genome.
Project description:Although the new generation of androgen receptor (AR) antagonists like enzalutamide (ENZ) prolong survival of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), AR-driven tumors eventually recur indicating that additional therapies are required to fully block AR function. Since DNA topoisomerase II (Topo II) was demonstrated to be essential for AR to initiate gene transcription, this study tested whether catalytic inhibitors of Topo II can block AR signaling and suppress ENZ-resistant CRPC growth. Using multiple prostate cancer cell lines, we showed that catalytic Topo II inhibitors, ICRF187 and ICRF193 inhibited transcription activities of the wild-type AR, mutant ARs (F876L and W741C) and the AR-V7 splice variant. ICRF187 and ICRF193 decreased AR recruitment to target promoters and reduced AR nuclear localization. Both ICRF187 and ICRF193 also inhibited cell proliferation and delayed cell cycling at the G2/M phase. ICRF187 inhibited tumor growth of castration-resistant LNCaP and 22RV1 xenografts as well as ENZ-resistant MR49F xenografts. We conclude that catalytic Topo II inhibitors can block AR signaling and inhibit tumor growth of CRPC xenografts, identifying a potential co-targeting approach using these inhibitors in combination with AR pathway inhibitors in CRPC.
Project description:Screening of a human B-cell cDNA library with a topoisomerase II beta gene-specific probe revealed the presence of two distinct forms of topoisomerase II beta cDNA. One form (designated topoisomerase II beta-1), representing the majority of the clones, would encode the topoisomerase II beta amino acid sequence reported recently [Jenkins, J.R. et al. (1992) Nucleic Acids Res., 20, 5587-5592]. The second form (designated topoisomerase II beta-2) would encode a protein containing an additional 5 amino acids inserted after Valine-23 of the topoisomerase II beta-1 protein sequence. The topoisomerase II beta-1 and beta-2 mRNAs were both widely expressed in human cell lines and tissues. Topoisomerase II beta-2 mRNA was expressed at a lower level than that of the beta-1 form, but the relative expression of the two forms varied in different cell types. Analysis of genomic DNA clones revealed that the two forms of topoisomerase II beta mRNA arose via differential splicing. These data indicate that in addition to the closely related topoisomerase II alpha and beta isozymes, there are two forms of topoisomerase II beta mRNA widely expressed in human cells.
Project description:Many anti-cancer drugs induce DNA breaks to eliminate tumor cells. The anthracycline topoisomerase II inhibitors can also evict histones. We performed a genome-wide high-resolution mapping of chemotherapeutic effects of various topoisomerase I and II inhibitors. We show that different drugs target different types of chromatin for induction of DNA damage and histone eviction. Topoisomerase inhibitors topotecan and etoposide similarly target transcriptionally active chromatin for DNA damage. Daunorubicin induces DNA breaks and evicts histones in active chromatin, thus quenching local DNA damage response. The analog aclarubicin evicts histones in H3K27me3-marked heterochromatin. These results can guide rational treatment decisions regarding these genome manipulating anti-cancer drugs. FAIRE-seq and g-H2AX ChIP-seq were performed on K562 cells after drug exposure