Project description:Many different processes have an impact on the shape of plant karyotype. Recently, cytogenetic examination of Lolium species has revealed the occurrence of spontaneous fragile sites (FSs) associated with 35S rDNA regions. The FSs are defined as the chromosomal regions that are sensitive to forming gaps or breaks on chromosomes. The shape of karyotype can also be determined by interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs), what was recognized for the first time in this paper in chromosomes of Festuca pratensis × Lolium perenne hybrids. Both FSs and ITSs can contribute to genome instabilities and chromosome rearrangements. To evaluate whether these cytogenetic phenomena have an impact on karyotype reshuffling observed in Festuca × Lolium hybrids, we examined F1 F. pratensis × L. perenne plants and generated F2-F9 progeny by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) using rDNA sequences, telomere and centromere probes, as well as by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Analyses using a combination of FISH and GISH revealed that intergenomic rearrangements did not correspond to FSs but overlapped with ITSs for several analyzed genotypes. It suggests that internal telomeric repeats can affect the shape of F. pratensis × L. perenne karyotypes. However, other factors that are involved in rearrangements and have a more crucial impact could exist, but they are still unknown.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Species of the Festuca and Lolium genera, as well as intergeneric Festuca × Lolium (Festulolium) hybrids, are valuable fodder and turf grasses for agricultural and amenity purposes worldwide. Festulolium hybrids can merge in their genomes agronomically important characteristics. However, in polyploid plants, especially in allopolyploids, the hybridization of divergent genomes could contribute to various abnormalities, such as variability in chromosome number, structural rearrangements, and/or disorders in inheritance patterns. Here we studied these issues in allotetraploid Festuca pratensis × Lolium perenne hybrids.<h4>Results</h4>Cytogenetic procedures, including fluorescent in situ hybridization, genomic in situ hybridization, and molecular markers - inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) were exploited. This cytogenetic approach indicated the dynamics in the number and distribution of ribosomal RNA genes and structural rearrangements for both parental genomes (Festuca and Lolium) in hybrid karyotypes. The separate analysis of F. pratensis and L. perenne chromosomes in hybrid plants (F<sub>2</sub>-F<sub>3</sub> generations of F. pratensis × L. perenne) revealed the asymmetrical level of rearrangements. Recognized structural changes were mainly located in the distal part of chromosome arms, and in chromosomes bearing ribosomal DNA, they were more frequently mapped in arms without this sequence. Based on the ISSR markers distribution, we found that the tetrasomic type of inheritance was characteristic for the majority of ISSR loci, but the disomic type was also observed. Nonetheless, no preference in the transmission of either Festuca or Lolium alleles to the following generations of allotetraploid F. pratensis × L. perenne hybrid was observed.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our study reports cytogenetic and molecular genotyping of the F. pratensis × L. perenne hybrid and its following F<sub>2</sub>-F<sub>3</sub> progenies. The analysis of 137 allotetraploid F. pratensis × L. perenne hybrids revealed the higher level of recombination in chromosomes derived from F. pratensis genome. The results of ISSR markers indicated a mixed model of inheritance, which may be characteristic for these hybrids.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) is the most widely cultivated forage and amenity grass species in temperate areas worldwide and there is a need to understand the genetic architectures of key agricultural traits and crop characteristics that deliver wider environmental services. Our aim was to identify genomic regions associated with agriculturally important traits by integrating a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based physical map with a genome-wide association study (GWAS). METHODS:BAC-based physical maps for L. perenne were constructed from ~212 000 high-information-content fingerprints using Fingerprint Contig and Linear Topology Contig software. BAC clones were associated with both BAC-end sequences and a partial minimum tiling path sequence. A panel of 716 L. perenne diploid genotypes from 90 European accessions was assessed in the field over 2 years, and genotyped using a Lolium Infinium SNP array. The GWAS was carried out using a linear mixed model implemented in TASSEL, and extended genomic regions associated with significant markers were identified through integration with the physical map. KEY RESULTS:Between ~3600 and 7500 physical map contigs were derived, depending on the software and probability thresholds used, and integrated with ~35 k sequenced BAC clones to develop a resource predicted to span the majority of the L. perenne genome. From the GWAS, eight different loci were significantly associated with heading date, plant width, plant biomass and water-soluble carbohydrate accumulation, seven of which could be associated with physical map contigs. This allowed the identification of a number of candidate genes. CONCLUSIONS:Combining the physical mapping resource with the GWAS has allowed us to extend the search for candidate genes across larger regions of the L. perenne genome and identified a number of interesting gene model annotations. These physical maps will aid in validating future sequence-based assemblies of the L. perenne genome.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Lolium perenne (perennial ryegrass) is the most important forage grass species of temperate regions. We have previously released the chloroplast genome sequence of L. perenne 'Cashel'. Here nine chloroplast microsatellite markers are published, which were designed based on knowledge about genetically variable regions within the L. perenne chloroplast genome. These markers were successfully used for characterizing the genetic diversity in Lolium and different grass species. METHODS: Chloroplast genomes of 14 Poaceae taxa were screened for mononucleotide microsatellite repeat regions and primers designed for their amplification from nine loci. The potential of these markers to assess genetic diversity was evaluated on a set of 16 Irish and 15 European L. perenne ecotypes, nine L. perenne cultivars, other Lolium taxa and other grass species. KEY RESULTS: All analysed Poaceae chloroplast genomes contained more than 200 mononucleotide repeats (chloroplast simple sequence repeats, cpSSRs) of at least 7 bp in length, concentrated mainly in the large single copy region of the genome. Nucleotide composition varied considerably among subfamilies (with Pooideae biased towards poly A repeats). The nine new markers distinguish L. perenne from all non-Lolium taxa. TeaCpSSR28 was able to distinguish between all Lolium species and Lolium multiflorum due to an elongation of an A(8) mononucleotide repeat in L. multiflorum. TeaCpSSR31 detected a considerable degree of microsatellite length variation and single nucleotide polymorphism. TeaCpSSR27 revealed variation within some L. perenne accessions due to a 44-bp indel and was hence readily detected by simple agarose gel electrophoresis. Smaller insertion/deletion events or single nucleotide polymorphisms detected by these new markers could be visualized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or DNA sequencing, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The new markers are a valuable tool for plant breeding companies, seed testing agencies and the wider scientific community due to their ability to monitor genetic diversity within breeding pools, to trace maternal inheritance and to distinguish closely related species.
Project description:Lolium perenne L. (perennial ryegrass) is globally one of the most important forage and grassland crops. We sequenced the chloroplast (cp) genome of Lolium perenne cultivar Cashel. The L. perenne cp genome is 135 282 bp with a typical quadripartite structure. It contains genes for 76 unique proteins, 30 tRNAs and four rRNAs. As in other grasses, the genes accD, ycf1 and ycf2 are absent. The genome is of average size within its subfamily Pooideae and of medium size within the Poaceae. Genome size differences are mainly due to length variations in non-coding regions. However, considerable length differences of 1-27 codons in comparison of L. perenne to other Poaceae and 1-68 codons among all Poaceae were also detected. Within the cp genome of this outcrossing cultivar, 10 insertion/deletion polymorphisms and 40 single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected. Two of the polymorphisms involve tiny inversions within hairpin structures. By comparing the genome sequence with RT-PCR products of transcripts for 33 genes, 31 mRNA editing sites were identified, five of them unique to Lolium. The cp genome sequence of L. perenne is available under Accession number AM777385 at the European Molecular Biology Laboratory, National Center for Biotechnology Information and DNA DataBank of Japan.
Project description:The aim of this experiment was to identify transcripts upregulated during vernalization in Lolium perenne plants. Illumina Genome Analyzer II RNA-Seq data was generated from leaf samples collected before vernalization, and after the start of cold treatment, at 2 days, 4 weeks and 9 weeks.
Project description:We focus on the identification of complete and recombined ribosomal DNA-bearing chromosomes, and the dynamics of chromosomal number and position of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci in the F2-F4 generations derived from the F1 hybrid of Festuca pratensis Huds. (2n?=?4x?=?28) × Lolium perenne L. (2n?=?4x?=?28). Lolium genomic DNA and rRNA genes were mapped by means of genomic and fluorescence in situ hybridization (GISH and FISH). The results revealed that plants of the three generations share various rDNA loci profiles with chromosome structural changes, possibly as a result of chromosomal inter- and intra-rearrangements. We observed an asymmetrical variation in the number of recombinant arms with and without rDNA loci between parental genomes. The Lolium genome was more affected by rearrangements in arms with rDNA loci, while Festuca was more affected in arms without them. Statistically significant differences between L. perenne and F. pratensis genomes concerned the number of recombined chromosomes without rDNA, and the number of recombined rDNA-bearing chromosomal arms of marked chromosomes, showing a tendency of F. pratensis genome-like chromosomes to be less stable, compared with L. perenne. We postulate a novel genome-dependent range and type of chromosome variation in plants of the F2-F4 generations derived from F. pratensis × L. perenne hybrid.