Project description:Cyanobium sp. NIES-981 is a marine cyanobacterium isolated from tidal flat sands in Okinawa, Japan. Here, we report the complete 3.0-Mbp genome sequence of NIES-981, which is composed of a single chromosome, and its annotation. This sequence information may provide a basis for developing an ecotoxicological bioassay using this strain.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Clinopodium gracile (Benth.) Matsum (C. gracile) is an annual herb with pharmacological properties effective in the treatment of various diseases, including hepatic carcinoma. Triterpenoid saponins are crucial bioactive compounds in C. gracile. However, the molecular understanding of the triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis pathway remains unclear. RESULTS:In this study, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis of the flowers, leaves, roots, and stems of C. gracile plants using the BGISEQ-500 platform. The assembly of transcripts from all four types of tissues generated 128,856 unigenes, of which 99,020 were mapped to several public databases for functional annotation. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified via the comparison of gene expression levels between leaves and other tissues (flowers, roots, and stems). Multiple genes encoding pivotal enzymes, such as squalene synthase (SS), or transcription factors (TFs) related to triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis were identified and further analyzed. The expression levels of unigenes encoding important enzymes were verified by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Different chemical constituents of triterpenoid saponins were identified by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS). CONCLUSIONS:Our results greatly extend the public transcriptome dataset of C. gracile and provide valuable information for the identification of candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins and other important secondary metabolites.
Project description:Camellia oleifera is an important Chinese commercial crop. Camellia oleifera can display abnormal leaves due to infection by the parasitic fungus Exobasidium gracile. Exobasidium gracile was isolated from infected leaves and used in fermentation, and exopolysaccharides EP0-1 and EP0.5-1 were purified from the fermentation broth. EP0-1 was an alkaline polysaccharide consisting mainly of the linkages α-d-Manp(1→, →2)-α-d-Manp(1→ and →6)-α-d-Manp(1→, →3)-α-d-Glcp(1→ and→4)-α-d-Glcp(1→, terminal β-d-Galf, (1→5)-β-d-Galf, and terminal β-D-GlcN(1→. EP0.5-1 was an acidic galactofuranose-containing polysaccharide. It contained the linkages of α-d-Manp(1→, →2)-α-d-Manp(1→, →6)-α-d-Manp(1→,→2, 6)-α-d-Manp(1→, →4)-α-d-Glcp(1→, and →4)-α-d-GlcUA(1→. Galactofuranose linkages were composed of terminal β-d-Galf, (1→6)-β-d-Galf and (1→2)-β-d-Galf. Exobasidium gracile exopolysaccharides displayed significant immunoregulatory activity by activating macrophages. This research indicates that infected leaves from Camellia oleifera including the exopolysaccharides produced by the parasitic fungus Exobasidium gracile by are worth further investigation as a functional product.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial genomes form units of genetic information replicating indepentently from nuclear genomes. Sequence data (most often from protein-coding genes) and other features (gene order, RNA secondary structure) of mitochondrial genomes are often used in phylogenetic studies of metazoan animals from population to phylum level. Pycnogonids are primarily marine arthropods, often considered closely related to chelicerates (spiders, scorpions and allies). However, due to their aberrant morphology and to controversial results from molecular studies, their phylogenetic position is still under debate. RESULTS: This is the first report of a complete mitochondrial genome sequence from a sea spider (Nymphon gracile, class Pycnogonida). Gene order derives from that of other arthropods so that presumably 10 single tRNA gene translocations, a translocation of the mitochondrial control region, and one large inversion affecting protein-coding genes must have happened in the lineage leading to Nymphon gracile. Some of the changes in gene order seem not to be common to all pycnogonids, as those were not found in a partial mitochondrial genome of another species, Endeis spinosa. Four transfer RNAs of Nymphon gracile show derivations from the usual cloverleaf secondary structure (truncation or loss of an arm). Initial phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial protein-coding gene sequences placed Pycnogonida as sister group to Acari. However, this is in contrast to the majority of all other studies using nuclear genes and/or morphology and was not recovered in a second analysis where two long-branching acarid species were omitted. CONCLUSION: Extensive gene rearrangement characterizes the mitochondrial genome of Nymphon gracile. At least some of the events leading to this derived gene order happened after the split of pycnogonid subtaxa. Nucleotide and amino acid frequencies show strong differences between chelicerate taxa, presumably biasing phylogenetic analyses. Thus the affinities between Pycnogonida and Acari (mites and ticks), as found in phylogenetic analyses using mitochondrial genes, may rather be due to long-branch attraction and independently derived nucleotide composition and amino acid frequency, than to a real sister group relationship.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nothoscordum gracile is an apomitic tetraploid widely distributed throughout the Americas and naturalized in many temperate regions of other continents. It has been suggested to form a species complex with sexual and apomictic N. nudicaule and N. macrostemon. Tetraploids of these species also share a structurally heterozygous chromosome complement 2n = 19 (13M + 6A). In this work, the origin of N. gracile and its relationships with its related species was investigated based on cytological and molecular data. METHODS: Cytogenetic analyses were based on meiotic behaviour, CMA bands, localization of 5S and 45S rDNA sites, and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Nuclear ITS and plastidial trnL-trnF sequences were also obtained for most individuals. KEY RESULTS: Proximal CMA bands were observed in the long arms of all acrocentrics of 2x and 4x N. macrostemon but not in diploid and some tetraploid cytotypes of N. nudicaule. Samples of N. gracile showed a variable number of CMA bands in the long arms of acrocentrics. Analysis of ITS sequences, dot-blot, GISH, and 5S and 45S rDNA sites, revealed no differentiation among the three species. The trnL-trnF cpDNA fragment showed variation with a trend to geographical structuring irrespective of morphospecies and fully congruent with karyotype variation. CONCLUSIONS: The 2n = 19 karyotype was probably formed by a centric fusion event occurring in N. nudicaule and later transmitted to tetraploid cytotypes of N. macrostemon. Diploids of N. nudicaule and N. macrostemon appeared as consistent recently diverged species, whereas tetraploid apomicts seem to constitute an assemblage of polyploid hybrids originating from multiple independent hybridization events between them, part of which are morphologically recognizable as N. gracile.