Project description:Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is the cause of wheat stem rust. A microarray was designed from genes predicted from the P. graminis f. sp. tritici genome assembly, and gene expression measured for four conditions which include wheat or barley infecting growth stages initiated by urediniospores. mRNA was prepared from fresh urediniospores, uredinospores germinated for 24 hr, wheat seedlings infected with urediniospores for 8 days, and barley seedlings infected with urediniospores for 8 days. The asexual uredinial infection cycle on wheat produces additional urediniospores, which can start new cycles of wheat infection and are readily spread by aerial transport. This expression data is further described in Duplessis et al, Obligate Biotrophy Features Unraveled by the Genomic Analysis of the Rust Fungi, Melampsora larici-populina and Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Overall design: A total of 12 samples were analyzed, including three biological replicates of the four conditions.
Project description:Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici is the cause of wheat stem rust. A microarray was designed from genes predicted from the P. graminis f. sp. tritici genome assembly, and gene expression measured for four conditions which include wheat or barley infecting growth stages initiated by urediniospores. mRNA was prepared from fresh urediniospores, uredinospores germinated for 24 hr, wheat seedlings infected with urediniospores for 8 days, and barley seedlings infected with urediniospores for 8 days. The asexual uredinial infection cycle on wheat produces additional urediniospores, which can start new cycles of wheat infection and are readily spread by aerial transport. This expression data is further described in Duplessis et al, Obligate Biotrophy Features Unraveled by the Genomic Analysis of the Rust Fungi, Melampsora larici-populina and Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici A total of 12 samples were analyzed, including three biological replicates of the four conditions.
Project description:The wheat stripe rust fungus, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), does not have a known alternate host for sexual reproduction, which makes it impossible to study gene linkages through classic genetic and molecular mapping approaches. In this study, we compared 4,219 Pst expression sequence tags (ESTs) to the genomic sequence of P. graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt), the wheat stem rust fungus, using BLAST searches. The percentages of homologous genes varied greatly among different Pst libraries with 54.51%, 51.21%, and 13.61% for the urediniospore, germinated urediniospore, and haustorial libraries, respectively, with an average of 33.92%. The 1,432 Pst genes with significant homology with Pgt sequences were grouped into physical groups corresponding to 237 Pgt supercontigs. The physical relationship was demonstrated by 12 pairs (57%), out of 21 selected Pst gene pairs, through PCR screening of a Pst BAC library. The results indicate that the Pgt genome sequence is useful in constructing Pst physical maps.
Project description:Transcriptomic profiling was done on barley samples incoulated with different Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) isolates of varying virulence profile on barley stem rust resistance gene rpg4/5 and Rpg1. Several differentally expressed host and pathogen genes were identified while comparing gene expression profiles between group of samples inoculated with isoaltes of varying virulence. Several variants with genes of pathogen were idnetified that are possibly associated with virulence to rpg4/5. Overall design: Suceptible barley cv. Harrignton were treated with 24 Pgt isolates, indivdually and samples were collected 5 days post inoculation.
Project description:The abundance and inherent potential for extensive allelic variations in simple sequence repeats (SSRs) or microsatellites resulted in valuable source for genetic markers in eukaryotes. In this study, we analyzed and compared the abundance and organisation of SSR in the genome of two important fungal pathogens of wheat, brown or leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) and black or stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici). P. triticina genome with two fold genome size as compared to P. graminis tritici has lower relative abundance and SSR density. The distribution pattern of different SSR motifs provides the evidence of greater accumulation of dinucleotide followed by trinucleotide repeats. More than two-hundred different types of repeat motifs were observed in the genomes. The longest SSR motifs varied in both genomes and some of the repeat motifs are found in higher frequency. The information about survey of relative abundance, relative density, length and frequency of different repeat motifs in Puccinia sp. will be useful for developing SSR markers that could find several applications in analysis of fungal genome such as genetic diversity, population genetics, race identification and acquisition of new virulence.
Project description:Pathogens secrete effector proteins to suppress host immunity, mediate nutrient uptake and subsequently enable parasitism. However, on non-adapted hosts, effectors can be detected as non-self by host immune receptors and activate non-host immunity. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms of effector triggered non-host resistance remain unknown. Here, we report that a small cysteine-rich protein PstSCR1 from the wheat rust pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) activates immunity in the non-host solanaceous model plant Nicotiana benthamiana. PstSCR1 homologs were found to be conserved in Pst, and in its closest relatives, Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici and Puccinia triticina. When PstSCR1 was expressed in N. benthamiana with its signal peptide, it provoked the plant immune system, whereas no stimulation was observed when it was expressed without its signal peptide. PstSCR1 expression in N. benthamiana significantly reduced infection capacity of the oomycete pathogens. Moreover, apoplast-targeted PstSCR1 triggered plant cell death in a dose dependent manner. However, in Brassinosteroid insensitive 1-Associated Kinase 1 (SERK3/BAK1) silenced N. benthamiana, cell death was remarkably decreased. Finally, purified PstSCR1 protein activated defence related gene expression in N. benthamiana. Our results show that a Pst-secreted protein, PstSCR1 can activate surface mediated immunity in non-adapted hosts and contribute to non-host resistance.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The wheat stripe rust fungus (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, PST) is responsible for significant yield losses in wheat production worldwide. In spite of its economic importance, the PST genomic sequence is not currently available. Fortunately Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has radically improved sequencing speed and efficiency with a great reduction in costs compared to traditional sequencing technologies. We used Illumina sequencing to rapidly access the genomic sequence of the highly virulent PST race 130 (PST-130). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We obtained nearly 80 million high quality paired-end reads (>50x coverage) that were assembled into 29,178 contigs (64.8 Mb), which provide an estimated coverage of at least 88% of the PST genes and are available through GenBank. Extensive micro-synteny with the Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (PGTG) genome and high sequence similarity with annotated PGTG genes support the quality of the PST-130 contigs. We characterized the transposable elements present in the PST-130 contigs and using an ab initio gene prediction program we identified and tentatively annotated 22,815 putative coding sequences. We provide examples on the use of comparative approaches to improve gene annotation for both PST and PGTG and to identify candidate effectors. Finally, the assembled contigs provided an inventory of PST repetitive elements, which were annotated and deposited in Repbase. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The assembly of the PST-130 genome and the predicted proteins provide useful resources to rapidly identify and clone PST genes and their regulatory regions. Although the automatic gene prediction has limitations, we show that a comparative genomics approach using multiple rust species can greatly improve the quality of gene annotation in these species. The PST-130 sequence will also be useful for comparative studies within PST as more races are sequenced. This study illustrates the power of NGS for rapid and efficient access to genomic sequence in non-model organisms.
Project description:Stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) is one of the most devastating diseases of wheat (Triticum spp.) worldwide. Indian isolates were characterised based on their phenotypic reaction on differential hosts carrying different Yr genes. Based on virulence/avirulence structure, isolates were characterised into ten different pathotypes viz. 70S0-2, 67S64, 70S4, 66S0, 70S64, 66S64-1, 38S102, 47S102, 46S119, and 78S84. These Indian pathotypes of P. striiformis f. sp. tritici and 38 pathotypes of other rust species (P. graminis tritici and P. triticina) were used in this study to analyze their molecular phylogenetic relationship. The nucleotides of rDNA-ITS, partial β-tubulin and ketopantoate reductase genes of all the pathotypes were sequenced directly after PCR. Based on sequence data of rDNA-ITS and β-tubulin, three phylogenetic groups corresponding to three different species of Puccinia were obtained. Asian isolates formed a distinct evolutionary lineage than from those derived from USA. The sequence similarity of Indian pathotypes with other Asian (China and Iran) isolates indicated the same origin of pathotypes. The results will allow rapid identification of Indian P.striiformis f. sp. tritici pathotypes causing stripe rust in wheat, assist in making predictions regarding potential rust pathotypes, and identifying sources of resistance to the disease in advance.
Project description:Wheat stem rust caused by the fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt), is regaining prominence due to the recent emergence of virulent isolates and epidemics in Africa, Europe and Central Asia. The development and deployment of wheat cultivars with multiple stem rust resistance (Sr) genes stacked together will provide durable resistance. However, certain disease resistance genes can suppress each other or fail in particular genetic backgrounds. Therefore, the function of each Sr gene must be confirmed after incorporation into an Sr-gene stack. This is difficult when using pathogen disease assays due to epistasis from recognition of multiple avirulence (Avr) effectors. Heterologous delivery of single Avr effectors can circumvent this limitation, but this strategy is currently limited by the paucity of cloned Pgt Avrs. To accelerate Avr gene cloning, we outline a procedure to develop a mutant population of Pgt spores and select for gain-of-virulence mutants. We used ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS) to mutagenize urediniospores and create a library of > 10,000 independent mutant isolates that were combined into 16 bulks of ~658 pustules each. We sequenced random mutants and determined the average mutation density to be 1 single nucleotide variant (SNV) per 258 kb. From this, we calculated that a minimum of three independently derived gain-of-virulence mutants is required to identify a given Avr gene. We inoculated the mutant library onto plants containing Sr43, Sr44, or Sr45 and obtained 9, 4, and 14 mutants with virulence toward Sr43, Sr44, or Sr45, respectively. However, only mutants identified on Sr43 and Sr45 maintained their virulence when reinolculated onto the lines from which they were identified. We further characterized 8 mutants with virulence toward Sr43. These also maintained their virulence profile on the stem rust international differential set containing 20 Sr genes, indicating that they were most likely not accidental contaminants. In conclusion, our method allows selecting for virulent mutants toward targeted resistance (R) genes. The development of a mutant library from as little as 320 mg spores creates a resource that enables screening against several R genes without the need for multiple rounds of spore multiplication and mutagenesis.