Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE24811: Time Series of Mouse skeletal muscle cell differentiation GSE24852: ChIP-Seq of MyoD, Myf5, Snai1, HDAC1, HDAC2, E47 and empty vector controls in mouse skeletal myoblasts or myotubes GSE38236: RNA-Seq of si-Snai1, si-Snai2, si-Snai1/2 and si-Scrambled treated myoblasts Refer to individual Series
Project description:SNAI1 and SNAI2 are transcription factors that initiate Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal cell transitions throughout development and in cancer metastasis. Here we show novel expression of SNAI1 and SNAI2 throughout mouse preimplantation development revealing asymmetrical localization of both SNAI1 and SNAI2 in individual blastomeres beginning at the 2-cell stage through to the 8-cell stage where SNAI1 and SNAI2 are then only detected in outer cells and not inner cells of the blastocyst. This study implicates SNAI1 and SNAI2 in the lineage segregation of the trophectoderm and inner cell mass, and provides new insight into these oncogenes.
Project description:Endochondral bone formation is a multistep process during which a cartilage primordium is replaced by mineralized bone. Several genes involved in cartilage and bone development have been identified as target genes for the Snail family of zinc finger transcriptional repressors, and a gain-of-function study has demonstrated that upregulation of Snai1 activity in mouse long bones caused a reduction in bone length. However, no in vivo loss-of-function studies have been performed to establish whether Snail family genes have an essential, physiological role during normal bone development. We demonstrate here that the Snai1 and Snai2 genes function redundantly during embryonic long bone development in mice. Deletion of the Snai2 gene, or limb bud-specific conditional deletion of the Snai1 gene, did not result in obvious defects in the skeleton. However, limb bud-specific Snai1 deletion on a Snai2 null genetic background resulted in substantial defects in the long bones of the limbs. Long bones of the Snai1/Snai2 double mutants exhibited defects in chondrocyte morphology and organization, inhibited trabecular bone formation, and delayed ossification. Chondrocyte proliferation was markedly reduced, and transcript levels of genes encoding cell cycle regulators, such as p21(Waf1/Cip1) , were strikingly upregulated in the Snai1/Snai2 double mutants, suggesting that during chondrogenesis Snail family proteins act to control cell proliferation by mediating expression of cell-cycle regulators. Snai2 transcript levels were increased in Snai1 mutant femurs, whereas Snai1 transcript levels were increased in Snai2 mutant femurs. In addition, in the mutant femurs the Snai1 and Snai2 genes compensated for each other's loss not only quantitatively, but also by expanding their expression into the other genes' normal expression domains. These results demonstrate that the Snai1 and Snai2 genes transcriptionally compensate temporally, spatially, and quantitatively for each other's loss, and demonstrate an essential role for Snail family genes during chondrogenesis in mice.
Project description:Aberrant activation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) associated factors were highly correlated with increased mortality in cancer patients. SNAIL family of transcriptional repressors comprised of three members, each of which were essentially associated with gastrulation and neural crest formation. Among which, SNAI1 and SNAI2 were efficiently induced during EMT and their expressions were correlated with poor clinical outcome in patients with breast, colon and ovarian carcinoma. In an ovarian cancer cell lines panel, we identified that SNAI1 and SNAI2 expressions were mutually exclusive, where SNAI1 predominantly represses SNAI2 expression. Detailed analysis of SNAI2 promoter region revealed that SNAI1 binds to two E-box sequences that mediated transcriptional repression. Through epigenetic inhibitor treatments, we identified that inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in SNAI1 overexpressing cells partially rescued SNAI2 expression. Importantly, we demonstrated a significant deacetylation of histone H3 and significant enrichments of HDAC1 and HDAC2 corepressors in both E-box regions of SNAI2 promoter. Our results suggested that SNAI1 repression on SNAI2 expression was predominantly mediated through the recruitment of the histone deacetylation machinery. Utilization of HDAC inhibitors would require additional profiling of SNAI1 activity and combined targeting of SNAI1 and HDACs might render efficient cancer treatment.
Project description:Nanog facilitates embryonic stem cell self-renewal and induced pluripotent stem cell generation during the final stage of reprogramming. From a genome-wide small interfering RNA screen using a Nanog-GFP reporter line, we discovered opposing effects of Snai1 and Snai2 depletion on Nanog promoter activity. We further discovered mutually repressive expression profiles and opposing functions of Snai1 and Snai2 during Nanog-driven reprogramming. We found that Snai1, but not Snai2, is both a transcriptional target and protein partner of Nanog in reprogramming. Ectopic expression of Snai1 or depletion of Snai2 greatly facilitates Nanog-driven reprogramming. Snai1 (but not Snai2) and Nanog cobind to and transcriptionally activate pluripotency-associated genes including Lin28 and miR-290-295. Ectopic expression of miR-290-295 cluster genes partially rescues reprogramming inefficiency caused by Snai1 depletion. Our study thus uncovers the interplay between Nanog and mesenchymal factors Snai1 and Snai2 in the transcriptional regulation of pluripotency-associated genes and miRNAs during the Nanog-driven reprogramming process.
Project description:In skeletal myogenesis, the transcription factor MyoD activates distinct transcriptional programs in progenitors compared to terminally differentiated cells. Using ChIP-Seq and gene expression analyses, we show that in primary myoblasts, Snail-HDAC1/2 repressive complex binds and excludes MyoD from its targets. Notably, Snail binds E box motifs that are G/C rich in their central dinucleotides, and such sites are almost exclusively associated with genes expressed during differentiation. By contrast, Snail does not bind the A/T-rich E boxes associated with MyoD targets in myoblasts. Thus, Snai1-HDAC1/2 prevent MyoD occupancy on differentiation-specific regulatory elements, and the change from Snail to MyoD binding often results in enhancer switching during differentiation. Furthermore, we show that a regulatory network involving myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), Snai1/2, miR-30a, and miR-206 acts as a molecular switch that controls entry into myogenic differentiation. Together, these results reveal a regulatory paradigm that directs distinct gene expression programs in progenitors versus terminally differentiated cells.
Project description:The members of the Snail superfamily of zinc-finger transcription factors, including Snai1 and Snai2, are involved in essential biological processes, such as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Although Snai1 has been investigated in a number of cancers, our knowledge on Snai2 and its role(s) in squamous cell carcinoma of oral tongue (SCCOT) is limited. In this study, we confirmed the previous observation that over-expression of Snai2 is a frequent event in SCCOT. We further demonstrated that Snai2 over-expression is associated with lymph node metastasis in two independent SCCOT patient cohorts (total n = 129). Statistical analysis revealed that Snai2 over-expression was correlated with reduced overall survival. Furthermore, over-expression of Snai2 was correlated with reduced E-cadherin expression and enhanced Vimentin expression, suggesting a functional role of Snai2 in EMT. These observations were confirmed in vitro, in which knockdown of Snai2 induced a switch from a mesenchymal-like morphology to an epithelial-like morphology in SCCOT cell lines, and suppressed the cell invasion and migration. In contrast, ectopic transfection of Snai2 led to enhanced cell invasion and migration. Furthermore, Snai2 knockdown attenuated TGF?1-induced EMT in SCCOT cell lines. Taken together, these data suggest that Snai2 plays major roles in EMT and the progression of SCCOT and may serve as a therapeutic target for patients at risk of metastasis.
Project description:In Drosophila, mutations in the Twist gene interact with mutations in the Snail gene. We show that the mouse Twist1 mutation interacts with Snai1 and Snai2 mutations to enhance aberrant cranial suture fusion, demonstrating that genetic interactions between genes of the Twist and Snail families have been conserved during evolution.
Project description:The Snail family of transcriptional regulators consists of three highly conserved members. These proteins regulate (repress) transcription via the recruitment of histone deacetylases to target gene promoters that possess the appropriate E-box binding sequences. Murine Snai1 is required for mouse development while Snai2 deficient animals survive with some anomalies. Less is known about the third member of the family, Snai3. To investigate the function of Snai3, we generated a conditional knockin mouse. Utilizing Cre-mediated deletion to facilitate the ablation of Snai3 in T cells or the entire animal, we found little to no effect of the loss of Snai3 in the entire animal or in T cell lineages. This finding provided the hypothesis that absence of Snai3 was mitigated, in part, by the presence of Snai2. To test this hypothesis we created Snai2/Snai3 double deficient mice. The developmental consequences of lacking both of these proteins was manifested in stunted growth, a paucity of offspring including a dramatic deficiency of female mice, and impaired immune cell development within the lymphoid lineages.
Project description:Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are a heterogeneous group of tumors with variable presentation and clinical behavior. Despite improvements in surgical and radiation therapy techniques, the 5-year survival rate has not improved significantly over the past decades. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify novel markers that may allow for the development of personalized therapeutic approaches. In the present study we evaluated the prognostic role of the expression of genes related to the induction of epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). To this aim, a consecutive series of 69 HNSCC were analyzed for the expression of TWIST1, TWIST2, SNAI1, SNAI2, E-Cadherin, N-Cadherin and Vimentin.TWIST1, TWIST2, SNAI1 and SNAI2 were significantly overexpressed in HNSCC, with TWIST2, SNAI1 and SNAI2 being more markedly increased in tumors compared to normal mucosae. The expression of TWIST1 and SNAI2 was associated with upregulation of mesenchymal markers, but failed to correlate with pathological parameters or clinical behaviour. In contrast, we found that upregulation of TWIST2, which was independent of the activation of a mesenchymal differentiation program, correlated with poor differentiation grade (p=0.016) and shorter survival (p=0.025), and identifies a subset of node-positive oral cavity/pharynx cancer patients with very poor prognosis (p less than 0.001). Overall our study suggests that the assessment of TWIST2 expression might help to stratify HNSCC patients for risk of disease progression, pointing to TWIST2 as a potential prognostic marker.