Project description:BACKGROUND:Repetitive regions of DNA and transposable elements have been found to constitute large percentages of eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes. Such elements are known to be involved in transcriptional regulation, host-pathogen interactions and genome evolution. RESULTS:We identified a minisatellite contained within a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element (MITE) in Porphyromonas gingivalis. The P. gingivalis minisatellite and associated MITE, named 'BrickBuilt', comprises a tandemly repeating twenty-three nucleotide DNA sequence lacking spacer regions between repeats, and with flanking 'leader' and 'tail' subunits that include small inverted-repeat ends. Forms of the BrickBuilt MITE are found 19 times in the genome of P. gingivalis strain ATCC 33277, and also multiple times within the strains W83, TDC60, HG66 and JCVI SC001. BrickBuilt is always located intergenically ranging between 49 and 591 nucleotides from the nearest upstream and downstream coding sequences. Segments of BrickBuilt contain promoter elements with bidirectional transcription capabilities. CONCLUSIONS:We performed a bioinformatic analysis of BrickBuilt utilizing existing whole genome sequencing, microarray and RNAseq data, as well as performing in vitro promoter probe assays to determine potential roles, mechanisms and regulation of the expression of these elements and their affect on surrounding loci. The multiplicity, localization and limited host range nature of MITEs and MITE-like elements in P. gingivalis suggest that these elements may play an important role in facilitating genome evolution as well as modulating the transcriptional regulatory system.
Project description:Although biofilms have been shown to be reservoirs of pathogens, our knowledge of the microbial diversity in biofilms within critical areas, such as health care facilities, is limited. Available methods for pathogen identification and strain typing have some inherent restrictions. In particular, culturing will yield only a fraction of the species present, PCR of virulence or marker genes is mainly focused on a handful of known species, and shotgun metagenomics is limited in the ability to detect strain variations. In this study, we present a single-cell genome sequencing approach to address these limitations and demonstrate it by specifically targeting bacterial cells within a complex biofilm from a hospital bathroom sink drain. A newly developed, automated platform was used to generate genomic DNA by the multiple displacement amplification (MDA) technique from hundreds of single cells in parallel. MDA reactions were screened and classified by 16S rRNA gene PCR sequence, which revealed a broad range of bacteria covering 25 different genera representing environmental species, human commensals, and opportunistic human pathogens. Here we focus on the recovery of a nearly complete genome representing a novel strain of the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis JCVI SC001) using the single-cell assembly tool SPAdes. Single-cell genomics is becoming an accepted method to capture novel genomes, primarily in the marine and soil environments. Here we show for the first time that it also enables comparative genomic analysis of strain variation in a pathogen captured from complex biofilm samples in a healthcare facility.
Project description:Currently, genome sequences of a total of 19 Porphyromonas gingivalis strains are available, including eight completed genomes (strains W83, ATCC 33277, TDC60, HG66, A7436, AJW4, 381, and A7A1-28) and 11 high-coverage draft sequences (JCVI SC001, F0185, F0566, F0568, F0569, F0570, SJD2, W4087, W50, Ando, and MP4-504) that are assembled into fewer than 300 contigs. The objective was to compare these genomes at both nucleotide and protein sequence levels in order to understand their phylogenetic and functional relatedness. Four copies of 16S rRNA gene sequences were identified in each of the eight complete genomes and one in the other 11 unfinished genomes. These 43 16S rRNA sequences represent only 24 unique sequences and the derived phylogenetic tree suggests a possible evolutionary history for these strains. Phylogenomic comparison based on shared proteins and whole genome nucleotide sequences consistently showed two groups with closely related members: one consisted of ATCC 33277, 381, and HG66, another of W83, W50, and A7436. At least 1,037 core/shared proteins were identified in the 19 P. gingivalis genomes based on the most stringent detecting parameters. Comparative functional genomics based on genome-wide comparisons between NCBI and RAST annotations, as well as additional approaches, revealed functions that are unique or missing in individual P. gingivalis strains, or species-specific in all P. gingivalis strains, when compared to a neighboring species P. asaccharolytica. All the comparative results of this study are available online for download at ftp://www.homd.org/publication_data/20160425/.
Project description:Porphyromonas gingivalis is strongly associated with periodontitis. P. gingivalis strain trafficking and tissue homing differ widely, even among presumptive closely related strains, such as W83 and A7436. Here, we present the genome sequence of A7436 with a single contig of 2,367,029 bp and a G+C content of 48.33%.
Project description:Porphyromonas gingivalis is associated with oral and systemic diseases. Strain-specific P. gingivalis invasion phenotypes have been correlated with disease presentation in infected laboratory animals. Here, we present the genome sequence of AJW4, a minimally invasive strain, with a single contig of 2,372,492 bp and a G+C content of 48.27%.
Project description:Porphyromonas gingivalis is associated with both oral and systemic diseases. Strain-specific P. gingivalis invasion phenotypes do not reliably predict disease presentation during in vivo studies. Here, we present the genome sequence of 381, a common laboratory strain, with a single contig of 2,378,872 bp and a G+C content of 48.36%.
Project description:Porphyromonas gingivalis is an oral opportunistic pathogen. Sequenced P. gingivalis laboratory strains display limited diversity in antigens that modulate host responses. Here, we present the genome sequence of A7A1-28, a strain possessing atypical fimbrillin and capsule types, with a single contig of 2,249,024 bp and a G+C content of 48.58%.
Project description:Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium associated with periodontal disease onset and progression. Genetic tools for the manipulation of bacterial genomes allow for in-depth mechanistic studies of metabolism, physiology, interspecies and host-pathogen interactions. Analysis of the essential genes, protein-coding sequences necessary for survival of P. gingivalis by transposon mutagenesis has not previously been attempted due to the limitations of available transposon systems for the organism. We adapted a Mariner transposon system for mutagenesis of P. gingivalis and created an insertion mutant library. By analyzing the location of insertions using massively-parallel sequencing technology we used this mutant library to define genes essential for P. gingivalis survival under in vitro conditions.In mutagenesis experiments we identified 463 genes in P. gingivalis strain ATCC 33277 that are putatively essential for viability in vitro. Comparing the 463 P. gingivalis essential genes with previous essential gene studies, 364 of the 463 are homologues to essential genes in other species; 339 are shared with more than one other species. Twenty-five genes are known to be essential in P. gingivalis and B. thetaiotaomicron only. Significant enrichment of essential genes within Cluster of Orthologous Groups 'D' (cell division), 'I' (lipid transport and metabolism) and 'J' (translation/ribosome) were identified. Previously, the P. gingivalis core genome was shown to encode 1,476 proteins out of a possible 1,909; 434 of 463 essential genes are contained within the core genome. Thus, for the species P. gingivalis twenty-two, seventy-seven and twenty-three percent of the genome respectively are devoted to essential, core and accessory functions.A Mariner transposon system can be adapted to create mutant libraries in P. gingivalis amenable to analysis by next-generation sequencing technologies. In silico analysis of genes essential for in vitro growth demonstrates that although the majority are homologous across bacterial species as a whole, species and strain-specific subsets are apparent. Understanding the putative essential genes of P. gingivalis will provide insights into metabolic pathways and niche adaptations as well as clinical therapeutic strategies.
Project description:Periodontitis is a progressive inflammatory disease that affects roughly half of American adults. Colonization of the oral cavity by the Gram-negative bacterial pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis is a key event in the initiation and development of periodontal disease. Adhesive surface structures termed fimbriae (pili) mediate interactions of P. gingivalis with other bacteria and with host cells throughout the course of disease. The P. gingivalis fimbriae are assembled via a novel mechanism that involves proteolytic processing of lipidated precursor subunits and their subsequent polymerization on the bacterial surface. Given their extracellular assembly mechanism and central roles in pathogenesis, the P. gingivalis fimbriae are attractive targets for anti-infective therapeutics to prevent or treat periodontal disease. Here we confirm that conserved sequences in the N and C termini of the Mfa1 fimbrial subunit protein perform critical roles in subunit polymerization. We show that treatment of P. gingivalis with peptides corresponding to the conserved C-terminal region inhibits the extracellular assembly of Mfa fimbriae on the bacterial surface. We also show that peptide treatment interferes with the function of Mfa fimbriae by reducing P. gingivalis adhesion to Streptococcus gordonii in a dual-species biofilm model. Finally, we show that treatment of bacteria with similar peptides inhibits extracellular polymerization of the Fim fimbriae, which are also expressed by P. gingivalis These results support a donor strand-based assembly mechanism for the P. gingivalis fimbriae and demonstrate the feasibility of using extracellular peptides to disrupt the biogenesis and function of these critical periodontal disease virulence factors.