Project description:Cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., represents the world's most important staple food crop, feeding more than half of the human population. Despite this essential role in world agriculture, the history of cultivated rice's domestication from its wild ancestor, Oryza rufipogon, remains unclear. In this study, DNA sequence variation in three gene regions is examined in a phylogeographic approach to investigate the domestication of cultivated rice. Results indicate that India and Indochina may represent the ancestral center of diversity for O. rufipogon. Additionally, the data suggest that cultivated rice was domesticated at least twice from different O. rufipogon populations and that the products of these two independent domestication events are the two major rice varieties, Oryza sativa indica and Oryza sativa japonica. Based on this geographical analysis, O. sativa indica was domesticated within a region south of the Himalaya mountain range, likely eastern India, Myanmar, and Thailand, whereas O. sativa japonica was domesticated from wild rice in southern China.
Project description:During evolution, various processes such as duplication, divergence, recombination, and many other events leads to the evolution of new genes with novel functions. These evolutionary events, thus significantly impact the evolution of cellular, physiological, morphological, and other phenotypic trait of organisms. While evolving, eukaryotes have acquired large number of genes from the earlier prokaryotes. This work is focused upon identification of old "prokaryotic" proteins in Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa genome, further highlighting their possible role(s) in the two genomes. Our results suggest that with respect to their genome size, the fraction of old "prokaryotic" proteins is higher in Arabidopsis than in Oryza sativa. The large fractions of such proteins encoding genes were found to be localized in various endo-symbiotic organelles. The domain architecture of the old "prokaryotic" proteins revealed similar distribution in both Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa genomes showing their conserved evolution. In Oryza sativa, the old "prokaryotic" proteins were more involved in developmental processes, might be due to constant man-made selection pressure for better agronomic traits/productivity. While in Arabidopsis, these proteins were involved in metabolic functions. Overall, the analysis indicates the distinct pattern of evolution of old "prokaryotic" proteins in Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa.
Project description:A long awn is one of the distinct morphological features of wild rice species. This organ is thought to aid in seed dispersal and prevent predation by animals. Most cultivated varieties of Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima, however, have lost the ability to form long awns. The causal genetic factors responsible for the loss of awn in these two rice species remain largely unknown. Here, we evaluated three sets of chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) in a common O. sativa genetic background (cv. Koshihikari) that harbor genomic fragments from Oryza nivara, Oryza rufipogon, and Oryza glaberrima donors. Phenotypic analyses of these libraries revealed the existence of three genes, Regulator of Awn Elongation 1 (RAE1), RAE2, and RAE3, involved in the loss of long awns in cultivated rice. Donor segments at two of these genes, RAE1 and RAE2, induced long awn formation in the CSSLs whereas an O. sativa segment at RAE3 induced long awn formation in O. glaberrima. These results suggest that the two cultivated rice species, O. sativa and O. glaberrima, have taken independent paths to become awnless.
Project description:To evaluate the roles of gene regulation in Oryza sativa leaf, dynamic profiles of transcriptome were investigated in Oryza sativa L. spp. indica with different treatments, the aerial tissues of one-month-old plants from four different areas (groups 1–4) were treated with 0, 40 mL of 25% azoxystrobin, 0.01 g of VdAL, or 40 mL of 25% azoxystrobin plus 0.01 g VdAL, respectively. Overall design: Using high-throughput sequencing technology to reveal the characteristic of transcriptome during Oryza sativa leaf development.
Project description:Glycoside Hydrolase 3 (GH3), a member of the Auxin-responsive gene family, is involved in plant growth, the plant developmental process, and various stress responses. The GH3 gene family has been well-studied in Arabidopsis thaliana and Zea mays. However, the evolution of the GH3 gene family in Oryza species remains unknown and the function of the GH3 gene family in Oryza sativa is not well-documented. Here, a systematic analysis was performed in six Oryza species/subspecies, including four wild rice species and two cultivated rice subspecies. A total of 13, 13, 13, 13, 12, and 12 members were identified in O. sativa ssp. japonica, O. sativa ssp. indica, Oryza rufipogon, Oryza nivara, Oryza punctata, and Oryza glumaepatula, respectively. Gene duplication events, structural features, conserved motifs, a phylogenetic analysis, chromosome locations, and Ka/Ks ratios of this important family were found to be strictly conservative across these six Oryza species/subspecies, suggesting that the expansion of the GH3 gene family in Oryza species might be attributed to duplication events, and this expansion could occur in the common ancestor of Oryza species, even in common ancestor of rice tribe (Oryzeae) (23.07~31.01 Mya). The RNA-seq results of different tissues displayed that OsGH3 genes had significantly different expression profiles. Remarkably, the qRT-PCR result after NaCl treatment indicated that the majority of OsGH3 genes play important roles in salinity stress, especially OsGH3-2 and OsGH3-8. This study provides important insights into the evolution of the GH3 gene family in Oryza species and will assist with further investigation of OsGH3 genes' functions under salinity stress.
Project description:Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient that is frequently inaccessible to plants. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants employ the Combined Strategy for Fe uptake, which is composed by all features of Strategy II, common to all Poaceae species, and some features of Strategy I, common to non-Poaceae species. To understand the evolution of Fe uptake mechanisms, we analyzed the root transcriptomic response to Fe deficiency in O. sativa and its wild progenitor O. rufipogon. We identified 622 and 2,017 differentially expressed genes in O. sativa and O. rufipogon, respectively. Among the genes up-regulated in both species, we found Fe transporters associated with Strategy I, such as IRT1, IRT2 and NRAMP1; and genes associated with Strategy II, such as YSL15 and IRO2. In order to evaluate the conservation of these Strategies among other Poaceae, we identified the orthologs of these genes in nine species from the Oryza genus, maize and sorghum, and evaluated their expression profile in response to low Fe condition. Our results indicate that the Combined Strategy is not specific to O. sativa as previously proposed, but also present in species of the Oryza genus closely related to domesticated rice, and originated around the same time the AA genome lineage within Oryza diversified. Therefore, adaptation to Fe2+ acquisition via IRT1 in flooded soils precedes O. sativa domestication.
Project description:In Oryza sativa, indica and japonica are pivotal subpopulations, and other subpopulations such as aus and aromatic are considered to be derived from indica or japonica. In this regard, Oryza sativa accessions are frequently viewed from the indica/japonica perspective. This study introduces a computational method for indica/japonica classification by applying phenotypic variables to the logistic regression model (LRM). The population used in this study included 413 Oryza sativa accessions, of which 280 accessions were indica or japonica. Out of 24 phenotypic variables, a set of seven phenotypic variables was identified to collectively generate the fully accurate indica/japonica separation power of the LRM. The resulting parameters were used to define the customized LRM. Given the 280 indica/japonica accessions, the classification accuracy of the customized LRM along with the set of seven phenotypic variables was estimated by 100 iterations of ten-fold cross-validations. As a result, the classification accuracy of 100% was achieved. This suggests that the LRM can be an effective tool to analyze the indica/japonica classification with phenotypic variables in Oryza sativa.
Project description:Oryza officinalis is an accessible alien donor for genetic improvement of rice. Comparison across a representative panel of Oryza species showed that the wild O. officinalis and cultivated O. sativa ssp. japonica have similar cold tolerance potentials. The possibility that either distinct or similar genetic mechanisms are involved in the low temperature responses of each species was addressed by comparing their transcriptional networks. General similarities were supported by shared transcriptomic signatures indicative of equivalent metabolic, hormonal, and defense status. However, O. officinalis has maintained an elaborate cold-responsive brassinosteroid-regulated BES1-network that appeared to have been fragmented in O. sativa. BES1-network is potentially important for integrating growth-related responses with physiological adjustments and defenses through the protection of photosynthetic machinery and maintenance of stomatal aperture, oxidative defenses, and osmotic adjustment. Equivalent physiological processes are functional in O. sativa but their genetic mechanisms are under the direct control of ABA-dependent, DREB-dependent and/or oxidative-mediated networks uncoupled to BES1. While O. officinalis and O. sativa represent long periods of speciation and domestication, their comparable cold tolerance potentials involve equivalent physiological processes but distinct genetic networks. BES1-network represents a novel attribute of O. officinalis with potential applications in diversifying or complementing other mechanisms in the cultivated germplasm.
Project description:Oryza meridionalis is a potential source for improving Asian cultivated rice O. sativa via direct hybridization and backcrossing. However, hybrid sterility between O. sativa and O. meridionalis is the main barrier of reproduction hindering the transfer of favorable genes from O. meridionalis to O. sativa. To investigate the nature of hybrid sterility between O. sativa and O. meridionalis, three accessions of O. meridionalis were used as male parents to cross Dianjingyou 1, an O. sativa subsp. japonica cultivar following the backcross with the recurrent parent of Dianjingyou 1. Twenty pollen sterility NILs (BC6F1) were obtained and genotyped by using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers distributed across the 12 rice chromosomes. The heterozygous markers were employed to genotype the corresponding segregation populations for mapping sterility genes. As a result, five novel loci for pollen sterility between O. sativa and O. meridionalis were identified and designated as S51(t), S52(t), S53(t), S54(t) and S55(t), respectively. The genetic behavior of five novel loci followed one-locus allelic interaction model. The disharmonious interaction between Asian cultivated rice allele and wild relative allele led to the partial or full abortion of male gametes for one parent allele in the heterozygotes. These results will be useful for elucidating the mechanism of interspecific hybrid sterility and further utilizing favorable genes from O. meridionalis for enhancement of rice breeding.
Project description:Burkholderia pseudomallei is a saprophytic bacterium that causes melioidosis and is often isolated from rice fields in Southeast Asia, where the infection incidence is high among rice field workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between this bacterium and rice through growth experiments where the effect of colonization of domestic rice (Oryza sativa L. cv Amaroo) roots by B. pseudomallei could be observed. When B. pseudomallei was exposed to surface-sterilized seeds, the growth of both the root and the aerosphere was retarded compared to that in controls. The organism was found to localize in the root hairs and endodermis of the plant. A biofilm formed around the root and root structures that were colonized. Growth experiments with a wild rice species (Oryza meridionalis) produced similar retardation of growth, while another domestic cultivar (O. sativa L. cv Koshihikari) did not show retarded growth. Here we report B. pseudomallei infection and inhibition of O. sativa L. cv Amaroo, which might provide insights into plant interactions with this important human pathogen.