Project description:The genus <i>Phlebovirus</i> is a diverse group of globally occurring viruses, including tick-, mosquito-, and sand fly-borne pathogens. Phleboviruses have historically been classified by serological methods. However, molecular methods alone have been used to identify emergent novel and related strains in recent years. This makes reconciling the classification of historically and newly characterized viruses challenging. To address this in part, we describe the characterization of the genomes of the Frijoles and Chilibre species complex phleboviruses, and three unclassified phleboviruses isolated in the Americas: Caimito, Itaporanga, and Rio Grande viruses that had previously only been described at the serological level. With the exception of <i>Itaporanga virus</i>, the phleboviruses sequenced in this study are phylogenetically related to the current species <i>Frijoles phlebovirus</i>, <i>Bujaru phlebovirus</i>, or the Chagres antigenic complex. Unexpectedly, molecular and phylogenetic analysis suggests Chilibre and Caimito viruses are taxonomically related to the family <i>Peribunyaviridae</i>. These viruses have a genomic architecture similar to peribunyaviruses and form monophyletic groups within the genus <i>Pacuvirus</i>. Our data highlight the importance of reconciling serological and molecular taxonomic classification. In addition, we suggest the taxonomy of Chilibre and Caimito viruses should be revised.
Project description:The unclassified bovine enteric calicivirus (BEC) is a new bovine enteric calicivirus that is different from bovine norovirus, and causes diarrhea and pathologies in the small intestine of calves. This virus includes Nebraska (NB)- and Newbury agent 1 (NA1)-like strains. The prevalence of this BEC and its genetic characterization has only been reported in the UK and the USA. This study examined the prevalence and genetic diversity of these BECs in diarrheic calves in South Korea. Among a total of 645 diarrheic fecal specimens obtained from 629 cattle herds, these unclassified BECs were detected in 59 (9.1%) diarrheic fecal samples from 57 herds (9.3%) by either RT-PCR or nested PCR. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the partial RdRp gene showed that all the Korean BECs clustered together and were closely related to the NB-like viruses (80.9-88.1% nucleotide and 84.5-98.4% amino acid) but not to the NA1-like viruses (75.8-78.4% nucleotide and 79.7-82.8% amino acid). Although these viruses could not be classified into NA1- and NB-like viruses from the sequence and phylogenetic data of the entire capsid gene, all the Korean BECs clustered together on a branch separate from the other known BECs. These results show that these BEC infections are endemic in diarrheic calves in South Korea. The infecting strains are genetically closer to the NB-like viruses but have a distinct evolutionary pathway.
Project description:Bats are known to harbor multiple paramyxoviruses. Despite the creation of two new genera, Aquaparamyxovirus and Ferlavirus, to accommodate this increasing diversity, several recently isolated or characterized viruses remain unclassified beyond the subfamily level. In the present study, among 985 bats belonging to 6 species sampled in the Belinga caves of Gabon, RNA of an unclassified paramyxovirus (Belinga bat virus, BelPV) was discovered in 14 African sheath-tailed bats (Coleura afra), one of which exhibited several hemorrhagic lesions at necropsy, and viral sequence was obtained in two animals. Phylogenetically, BelPV is related to J virus and Beilong virus (BeiPV), two other unclassified paramyxoviruses isolated from rodents. In the diseased BelPV-infected C. afra individual, high viral load was detected in the heart, and the lesions were consistent with those reported in wild rodents and mice experimentally infected by J virus. BelPV was not detected in other tested bat species sharing the same roosting sites and living in very close proximity with C. afra in the two caves sampled, suggesting that this virus may be host-specific for C. afra. The mode of transmission of this paramyxovirus in bat populations remains to be discovered.
Project description:Numerous metagenomic studies have uncovered a remarkable diversity of circular replication-associated protein (Rep)-encoding single-stranded (CRESS) DNA viruses, the majority of which are uncultured and unclassified. Unlike capsid proteins, the Reps show significant similarity across different groups of CRESS DNA viruses and have conserved domain organization with the N-terminal nuclease and the C-terminal helicase domain. Consequently, Rep is widely used as a marker for identification, classification and assessment of the diversity of CRESS DNA viruses. However, it has been shown that in certain viruses the Rep nuclease and helicase domains display incongruent evolutionary histories. Here, we systematically evaluated the co-evolutionary patterns of the two Rep domains across classified and unclassified CRESS DNA viruses. Our analysis indicates that the Reps encoded by members of the families Bacilladnaviridae, Circoviridae, Geminiviridae, Genomoviridae, Nanoviridae and Smacoviridae display largely congruent evolutionary patterns in the two domains. By contrast, among the unclassified CRESS DNA viruses, 71% appear to have chimeric Reps. Such massive chimerism suggests that unclassified CRESS DNA viruses represent a dynamic population in which exchange of gene fragments encoding the nuclease and helicase domains is extremely common. Furthermore, purging of the chimeric sequences uncovered six monophyletic Rep groups that may represent new families of CRESS DNA viruses.