Project description:Microarrays were used to determine the change in gene expression of genes involved in the p53 pathway after siRNA knock down of p53, CDT1 or BRCA1 A375 cells were grown, transfected with siRNA, incubated for 48hrs, then incubated for another 26hrs in the presence of either 0.065% DMSO as control, 650nM MLN4924, 5uM Nutlin or 100nM Daunorubicin. RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix HG-U133Plus 2.0 arrays were performed. 12 conditions in triplicate for a total of 42 samples
Project description:The goal of the study is to identify p53 target genes specific to macrophages using the p53 stabilizer, Nutlin-3. Macrophages were differentiated x-vivo from monocytes obtained from healthy volunteers either left untreated or treated for 2 hours with 100 ng/mL of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 0.1%v/v of DMSO (vehicle control for Nutlin-3) or 10 micromolar Nutlin-3. Three replicates were included for each treatment group.
Project description:Microarrays were used to determine the change in gene expression of genes involved in the CDT1/NAE pathway A375 cells were grown and then incubated in the presence of either DMSO as control or 650nM MLN4924. Cells were treated for 1, 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours. RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix HG-U133Plus 2.0 arrays were performed.
Project description:Cullin-RING ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) are responsible for the ubiquitination of many cellular proteins, thereby targeting them for proteasomal degradation. In most cases the substrates of the CRLs have not been identified, although many of those that are known have cancer relevance. MLN4924, an investigational small molecule that is a potent and selective inhibitor of the Nedd8-activating enzyme (NAE), is currently being explored in Phase I clinical trials. Inhibition of Nedd8-activating enzyme by MLN4924 prevents the conjugation of cullin proteins with NEDD8, resulting in inactivation of the entire family of CRLs. We have performed stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture analysis of A375 melanoma cells treated with MLN4924 to identify new CRL substrates, confidently identifying and quantitating 5122-6012 proteins per time point. Proteins such as MLX, EID1, KLF5, ORC6L, MAGEA6, MORF4L2, MRFAP1, MORF4L1, and TAX1BP1 are rapidly stabilized by MLN4924, suggesting that they are novel CRL substrates. Proteins up-regulated at later times were also identified and siRNA against their corresponding genes were used to evaluate their influence on MLN4924-induced cell death. Thirty-eight proteins were identified as being particularly important for the cytotoxicity of MLN4924. Strikingly, these proteins had roles in cell cycle, DNA damage repair, and ubiquitin transfer. Therefore, the combination of RNAi with stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture provides a paradigm for understanding the mechanism of action of novel agents affecting the ubiquitin proteasome system and a path to identifying mechanistic biomarkers.
Project description:The identification of the essential role of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) in the control of cell division has prompted the development of small-molecule CDK inhibitors as anticancer drugs. For many of these compounds, the precise mechanism of action in individual tumor types remains unclear as they simultaneously target different classes of CDKs - enzymes controlling the cell cycle progression as well as CDKs involved in the regulation of transcription. CDK inhibitors are also capable of activating p53 tumor suppressor in tumor cells retaining wild-type p53 gene by modulating MDM2 levels and activity. In the current study, we link, for the first time, CDK activity to the overexpression of the MDM4 (MDMX) oncogene in cancer cells. Small-molecule drugs targeting the CDK9 kinase, dinaciclib, flavopiridol, roscovitine, AT-7519, SNS-032, and DRB, diminished MDM4 levels and activated p53 in A375 melanoma and MCF7 breast carcinoma cells with only a limited effect on MDM2. These results suggest that MDM4, rather than MDM2, could be the primary transcriptional target of pharmacological CDK inhibitors in the p53 pathway. CDK9 inhibitor atuveciclib downregulated MDM4 and enhanced p53 activity induced by nutlin-3a, an inhibitor of p53-MDM2 interaction, and synergized with nutlin-3a in killing A375 melanoma cells. Furthermore, we found that human pluripotent stem cell lines express significant levels of MDM4, which are also maintained by CDK9 activity. In summary, we show that CDK9 activity is essential for the maintenance of high levels of MDM4 in human cells, and drugs targeting CDK9 might restore p53 tumor suppressor function in malignancies overexpressing MDM4.
Project description:Background:The links between the p53/MDM2 pathway and the expression of pro-oncogenic immune inhibitory receptors in tumor cells are undefined. In this report, we evaluate whether there is p53 and/or MDM2 dependence in the expression of two key immune receptors, CD276 and PD-L1. Methods:Proximity ligation assays were used to quantify protein-protein interactions in situ in response to Nutlin-3. A panel of p53-null melanoma cells was created using CRISPR-Cas9 guide RNA mediated genetic ablation. Flow cytometric analyses were used to assess the impact of TP53 or ATG5 gene ablation, as well as the effects of Nutlin-3 and an ATM inhibitor on cell surface PD-L1 and CD276. Targeted siRNA was used to deplete CD276 to assess changes in cell cycle parameters by flow cytometry. A T-cell proliferation assay was used to assess activity of CD4+ T-cells as a function of ATG5 genotype. Results:CD276 forms protein-protein interactions with MDM2 in response to Nutlin-3, similar to the known MDM2 interactors p53 and HSP70. Isogenic HCT116 p53-wt/null cancer cells demonstrated that CD276 is induced on the cell surface by Nutlin-3 in a p53-dependent manner. PD-L1 was also unexpectedly induced by Nutlin-3, but PD-L1 does not bind MDM2. The ATM inhibitor KU55993 reduced the levels of PD-L1 under conditions where Nutlin-3 induces PD-L1, indicating that MDM2 and ATM have opposing effects on PD-L1 steady-state levels. PD-L1 is also up-regulated in response to genetic ablation of TP53 in A375 melanoma cell clones under conditions in which CD276 remains unaffected. A549 cells with a deletion in the ATG5 gene up-regulated only PD-L1, further indicating that PD-L1 and CD276 are under distinct genetic control. Conclusion:Genetic inactivation of TP53, or the use of the MDM2 ligand Nutlin-3, alters the expression of the immune blockade receptors PD-L1 and CD276. The biological function of elevated CD276 is to promote altered cell cycle progression in response to Nutlin-3, whilst the major effect of elevated PD-L1 is T-cell suppression. These data indicate that TP53 gene status, ATM and MDM2 influence PD-L1 and CD276 paralogs on the cell surface. These data have implications for the use of drugs that target the p53 pathway as modifiers of immune checkpoint receptor expression.
Project description:Using our computational method SynGeNet to evaluate genomic and transcriptomic data characterizing four major genomic subtypes of melanoma, we selected the top ranked drug combination for BRAF-mutation melanoma for subsequent validaiton. Here we present drug-induced gene expression data from the BRAF-mutant A375 melanoma cell line in response to four treatment conditions: vehicle control (DMSO), vemurafenib alone, tretinoin (ATRA) alone and vemurafenib+tretinoin combination. Overall design: Gene expression profiles of A375 melanoma cells were generated by RNAseq (Illumina HiSeq 4000) under the following treatment conditions: vehicle control (DMSO), vemurafenib, tretinoin and vemurafenib + tretinoin combination.