Project description:Prior aerosol exposure to F. tularensis subsp. tularensis, but not the live attenuated strain (LVS) of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica or F. novicida, significantly antagonized the transcriptional response in the lungs of infected mice exposed to aerosolized TLR4 ligand E. coli LPS. Overall design: The ability of a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist to induce a pulmonary inflammatory response in Francisella-infected animals was examined to distinguish between these two possible mechanisms, and also to investigate potential differences between three Francisella strains that exhibit varying levels of virulence in humans.
Project description:The highly infectious bacterium Francisella tularensis is a facultative intracellular pathogen, whose virulence requires proliferation inside host cells, including macrophages. Although some Francisella determinants of intracellular growth have been identified, much remains to be understood about the pathogenesis of this organism. In particular, how Francisella responds to its intracellular environment could provide clues about its intracellular biology and reveal pathogenic determinants based on their intracellular expression profiles. Here we have performed a global transcriptional profiling of the highly virulent F. tularensis subsp. tularensis Schu S4 strain during its intracellular cycle within primary murine macrophages. Phagocytosed bacteria rapidly responded to their intracellular environment and progressively altered their transcriptional profile over time. Differential gene expression profiles were revealed that correlated with specific intracellular locations of the bacteria. Upregulation of general and oxidative stress response genes was a hallmark of the early phagosomal and late endosomal stages, while induction of a subset of transport and metabolic genes characterized the cytosolic replication stages. Expression of the Francisella Pathogenicity Island (FPI) genes, the functions of which are associated with intracellular proliferation, increased during the intracellular cycle. Similarly, 27 chromosomal loci putatively encoding hypothetical, secreted, outer membrane proteins or transcriptional regulators were identified as upregulated during the intracellular cycle. In-frame deletion of FTT0383, the Schu S4 ortholog of fevR, of FTT0369c or FTT1676 abolished the ability of Schu S4 to either survive or proliferate intracellularly, demonstrating that bacterial factors of intracellular pathogenesis can be identified based on their intracellular expression profile. In conclusion, establishing the intracellular transcriptome of Francisella has revealed important aspects of its intracellular biology and identified novel virulence determinants of this pathogen. Keywords: Time series Overall design: Intracellular cycle within primary murine macrophages using the time series of zero, one, two, four, eight, twelve, sixteen and twenty-four hours
Project description:Differential expression in human peripheral blood monocytes between F. novicida-infected and uninfected, and between Francisella tularensis tularensis isolate Schu S4 and uninfected. The goal was to examine genomewide transcriptional reponses to these two strains, and identify differentially-regulated genes that may help explain the virulence of Schu S4. Keywords: Immune Response, Human Monocytes, Bacteria, Francisella Overall design: Human monocytes were infected with the Schu S4 isolate of Francisella tularensis tularensis (n=4), with F. tularensis subspecies novicida isolate U112 (n=4) or were left uninfected (n=6). Gene expression values were calculated using the gcrma package in R and BioConductor, and limma to identify differentially expressed genes. Submitted here are expression values calculated using R 2.7.1 and BioConductor 2.2 (FreeBSD/amd64) but the original were done using R 2.6.1 and BioConductor 2.1 (FreeBSD/amd64). Twelve other chips were pooled with these 14 for preprocessing.