Project description:A butcher with chronic dermatitis presented with a second episode of Streptococcus suis meningitis, 8 years after the first episode. To distinguish between reinfection and persistent carriage, we compared the two S. suis isolates using whole genome sequencing. We investigated whole genome sequences of the S. suis isolates by means of substitution rates and population structure of closely related strains in addition to available clinical information. Genome-wide analyses revealed an inserted region consisting of 12 genes in the first isolate and the calculated substitution rate between the isolates suggested infections were caused by highly similar, but unrelated strains. Continuous occupational exposure likely resulted in reinfection with S. suis in a butcher.
Project description:Although Streptococcus suis has attracted public attention as a major swine and human pathogen, this bacterium has also been isolated from other animals, including ruminants. However, recent taxonomic studies revealed the existence of other species that were previously identified as S. suis, and some of these isolates were reclassified as the novel species Streptococcus ruminantium. In Japan, biochemically identified S. suis is frequently isolated from diseased ruminants; however, such isolates have not yet been identified accurately, and their aetiological importance in ruminants is unclear. Therefore, to understand the importance of S. suis and S. suis-like bacteria in ruminants, we reclassified S. suis isolates from ruminants according to the updated classification and investigated their genetic diversity. Although both S. suis and S. ruminantium were isolated from healthy and diseased ruminants, most of the isolates from diseased animals were S. ruminantium, implying that S. ruminantium is more likely to be associated with ruminant disease than S. suis. However, the ruminant S. suis and S. ruminantium isolates from diseased animals were classified into diverse genotypes rather than belonging to certain clonal groups. Genome sequence analysis of 20 S. ruminantium isolates provided information about the antibiotic resistance, potential virulence, and serological diversity of this species. We further developed an S. ruminantium-specific PCR assay to aid in the identification of this bacterium. The information obtained and the method established in this study will contribute to the accurate diagnosis of ruminant streptococcal infections.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen that infects pigs and can occasionally cause serious infections in humans. S. suis infections occur sporadically in human Europe and North America, but a recent major outbreak has been described in China with high levels of mortality. The mechanisms of S. suis pathogenesis in humans and pigs are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:The sequencing of whole genomes of S. suis isolates provides opportunities to investigate the genetic basis of infection. Here we describe whole genome sequences of three S. suis strains from the same lineage: one from European pigs, and two from human cases from China and Vietnam. Comparative genomic analysis was used to investigate the variability of these strains. S. suis is phylogenetically distinct from other Streptococcus species for which genome sequences are currently available. Accordingly, approximately 40% of the approximately 2 Mb genome is unique in comparison to other Streptococcus species. Finer genomic comparisons within the species showed a high level of sequence conservation; virtually all of the genome is common to the S. suis strains. The only exceptions are three approximately 90 kb regions, present in the two isolates from humans, composed of integrative conjugative elements and transposons. Carried in these regions are coding sequences associated with drug resistance. In addition, small-scale sequence variation has generated pseudogenes in putative virulence and colonization factors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:The genomic inventories of genetically related S. suis strains, isolated from distinct hosts and diseases, exhibit high levels of conservation. However, the genomes provide evidence that horizontal gene transfer has contributed to the evolution of drug resistance.
Project description:Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen that can also cause severe diseases in humans. Herein, we describe the genome sequence of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 virulent strain SS2-1, which was isolated from a diseased dead pig amid the 1998 Streptococcus suis outbreak in Jiangsu Province in China.
Project description:Identification of Genes and Genomic Islands Correlated with High Pathogenicity through Tilling Microarray-Based Comparative Genomics in S. suis. Streptococcus suis is an important zoonotic pathogen that can cause meningitis and sepsis in both pigs and humans. S. suis isolates have been categorized into groups of different levels of pathogenicity, with sequence type (ST) ST1 clonal complex strains having a higher degree of virulence than other STs. However, the genetic basis of the differences in pathogenicity is still poorly understood. In this study, a comprehensive genomic comparison of 31 S. suis strains from different clinical sources with the genome sequence of the high pathogenicity (HP) strain GZ1 was conducted using NimbleGenM-bM-^@M-^Ys tilling microarray platform. Comparative genomic analysis on the 31 S. suis strains of different serotypes and ST types through tilling arrays.
Project description:Streptococcus suis is a zoonotic pathogen causing economic loss in the swine industry and is also a threat to human health. To date, the mechanism of pathogenesis is not fully understood. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of S. suis strain ST3 of serotype 3, which provides opportunities to reveal genetic basis of infection of S. suis non-serotype 2 strains.
Project description:Streptococcus suis is divided into 29 serotypes based on a serological reaction against the capsular polysaccharide (CPS). Multiplex PCR tests targeting the cps locus are also used to determine S. suis serotypes, but they cannot differentiate between serotypes 1 and 14, and between serotypes 2 and 1/2. Here, we developed a pipeline permitting in silico serotype determination from whole-genome sequencing (WGS) short-read data that can readily identify all 29?S. suis serotypes.We sequenced the genomes of 121 strains representing all 29 known S. suis serotypes. We next combined available software into an automated pipeline permitting in silico serotyping of strains by differential alignment of short-read sequencing data to a custom S. suis cps loci database. Strains of serotype pairs 1 and 14, and 2 and 1/2 could be differentiated by a missense mutation in the cpsK gene. We report a 99 % match between coagglutination- and pipeline-determined serotypes for strains in our collection. We used 375 additional S. suis genomes downloaded from the NCBI's Sequence Read Archive (SRA) to validate the pipeline. Validation with SRA WGS data resulted in a 92 % match. Included pipeline subroutines permitted us to assess strain virulence marker content and obtain multilocus sequence typing directly from WGS data.Our pipeline permits rapid and accurate determination of S. suis serotype, and other lineage information, directly from WGS data. By discriminating between serotypes 1 and 14, and between serotypes 2 and 1/2, our approach solves a three-decade longstanding S. suis typing issue.
Project description:Streptococcus suis is an important cause of meningitis, arthritis, and sudden death in young piglets and of meningitis in humans. A novel temperate S. suis-specific bacteriophage (?NJ2) was identified. The phage was induced from the S. suis strain NJ2 by using mitomycin C, and the whole genome sequence was determined. The ?NJ2 genome is 37,282 bp in length and contains 56 open reading frames (ORFs). While 31 ORFs (55%) encoded hypothetical proteins, other ORFs were predicted to be functional, clearly indicating the novelty of ?NJ2.
Project description:Streptococcus suis is an important zoonotic pathogen that can cause meningitis and sepsis in both pigs and humans. In this study,we evaluated the genetic difference of 40 Streptococcus suis strains belonging to various sequence types by comparative genomic hybridization to identify genes associated with the variation in pathogenicity using NimbleGenM-bM-^@M-^Ys tilling microarray platform. Application of Comparative Phylogenomics to Identify Genetic Differences Relating to Pathogenicity of Streptococcus suis Comparative genomic analysis on the 40 S.suis strains of different serotypes and ST types through tilling arrays
Project description:Streptococcus suis is an important emerging worldwide pig pathogen and zoonotic agent with rapid evolution of virulence and drug resistance. Licochalcone A, used in traditional Chinese medicine, exhibits antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Herein, a whole-genome DNA microarray was used to investigate the global transcriptional regulation of Streptococcus suis 05ZYH33 treated by subinhibitory concentration of licochalcone A. 132 genes were differentially regulated upon liochalcone A treatment, including 78 genes up-regulated and 54 genes down-regulated which included many central biological functions such as metabolism, transcription and translation. We tried to investigate the antimicrobial mechanism of licochalcone A in the aspect of bacterial cell cycle control. Our analysis indicated that licochalcone A might inhibit the growth of S. suis by controlling the replication initiation and cell division through amino acid metabolism. A cDNA microarray imprinted with 2156 genes representing about 98% of Streptococcus suis serotype 2 genome was used for transcriptome analysis. For two-sample (reference vs. test) microarray hybridization, four independent bacterial cultures from each condition were prepared as biological replicates for RNA isolation. Four dual-fluorescence-labeled cDNA probes were prepared to hybridize with four slides, respectively. Pairwise comparisons were made using dye swaps to avoid labeling bias. A ratio of mRNA levels (test/reference) was calculated for each gene. Significant changes of gene expression were identified with the SAM software. After the SAM analysis, only genes with at least 2-fold changes in expression were collected for further analysis.