Project description:The control of mRNA stability plays a central role in orchestrating gene-regulatory networks in hematopoietic cell growth, differentiation and tumorigenesis. HNRNPA0, which encodes an RNA-binding protein shown to regulate transcript stability via binding to the AU-rich elements of mRNAs, is located within the commonly deleted segment of 5q31.2 in myeloid neoplasms with a del(5q), and is expressed at haploinsufficient levels in these patients. We show that HNRNPA0 is normally highly expressed in hematopoietic stem cells and exhibits dynamic changes in expression during the course of differentiation. To model HNRNPA0 haploinsufficiency, we used RNAi interference in primary murine cells and an experimental cell system, and found that reduced Hnrnpa0 expression leads to a shift from monocytic towards granulocytic differentiation. Microarray-based global expression profiling revealed that Hnrnpa0 knockdown disproportionally impacts AU-rich containing transcripts and alters expression of myeloid specification genes. In therapy-related myeloid neoplasms with a del(5q), AU-rich containing mRNAs are enriched in transcripts that encode proteins associated with increased growth and proliferation. Our findings implicate haploinsufficiency of HNRNPA0 as one of the key initiating mutations in the pathogenesis of myeloid neoplasms with a del(5q), and suggest that therapies that target AU-rich elements warrant consideration in efforts to develop new mechanism-based treatment strategies.
Project description:Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) represent a hematologically diverse group of myeloid neoplasms, however, one subtype characterized by an isolated deletion of chromosome 5q [del(5q)] is pathologically and clinically distinct. Patients with del(5q) MDS share biological features that account for the profound hypoplastic anemia and unique sensitivity to treatment with lenalidomide. Ineffective erythropoiesis in del(5q) MDS arises from allelic deletion of the ribosomal processing S-14 (RPS14) gene, which leads to MDM2 sequestration with consequent p53 activation and erythroid cell death. Since its approval in 2005, lenalidomide has changed the natural course of the disease. Patients who achieve transfusion independence and/or a cytogenetic response with lenalidomide have a decreased risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia and an improved overall survival compared to non-responders. Elucidation of the mechanisms of action of lenalidomide in del(5q) MDS has advanced therapeutic strategies for this disease. The selective cytotoxicity of lenalidomide in del(5q) clones derives from inhibition of a haplodeficient phosphatase whose catalytic domain is encoded within the common deleted region on chromosome 5q, i.e., protein phosphatase 2A (PP2Ac?). PP2A is a highly conserved, dual specificity phosphatase that plays an essential role in regulation of the G2/M checkpoint. Inhibition of PP2Ac? results in cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in del(5q) cells. Targeted knockdown of PP2Ac? using siRNA is sufficient to sensitize non-del(5q) clones to lenalidomide. Through its inhibitory effect on PP2A, lenalidomide stabilizes MDM2 to restore p53 degradation in erythroid precursors, with subsequent arrest in G2/M. Unfortunately, the majority of patients with del(5q) MDS develop resistance to lenalidomide over time associated with PP2Ac? over-expression. Targeted inhibition of PP2A with a more potent inhibitor has emerged as an attractive therapeutic approach for patients with del(5q) MDS.
Project description:Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are the most common adult myeloid blood cancers in the US. Patients have increased apoptosis in their bone marrow cells leading to low peripheral blood counts. The full complement of gene mutations that contribute to increased apoptosis in MDS remains unknown. Up to 25% of MDS patients harbor and acquired interstitial deletion on the long arm of chromosome 5 [del(5q)], creating haploinsufficiency for a large set of genes including HSPA9. Knockdown of HSPA9 in primary human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells significantly inhibits growth and increases apoptosis. We show here that HSPA9 knockdown is associated with increased TP53 expression and activity, resulting in increased expression of target genes BAX and p21. HSPA9 protein interacts with TP53 in CD34+ cells and knockdown of HSPA9 increases nuclear TP53 levels, providing a possible mechanism for regulation of TP53 by HSPA9 haploinsufficiency in hematopoietic cells. Concurrent knockdown of TP53 and HSPA9 rescued the increased apoptosis observed in CD34+ cells following knockdown of HSPA9. Reduction of HSPA9 below 50% results in severe inhibition of cell growth, suggesting that del(5q) cells may be preferentially sensitive to further reductions of HSPA9 below 50%, thus providing a genetic vulnerability to del(5q) cells. Treatment of bone marrow cells with MKT-077, an HSPA9 inhibitor, induced apoptosis in a higher percentage of cells from MDS patients with del(5q) compared to non-del(5q) MDS patients and normal donor cells. Collectively, these findings indicate that reduced levels of HSPA9 may contribute to TP53 activation and increased apoptosis observed in del(5q)-associated MDS.
Project description:The post-transcriptional control of mRNA stability plays a critical role in numerous biological functions, including the immune response, cell cycle regulation and DNA damage response. HNRNPA0, which encodes an RNA-binding protein shown to regulate transcript stability via binding to the AU-rich elements (AREs) of mRNAs, is located within the commonly deleted segment of 5q31.2 in therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MNs) with a del(5q). We hypothesized that loss of HNRNPA0 leads to alterations in hematopoietic differentiation due to changes in the expression of its target AU-rich transcripts. Using RNAi interference to model Hnrnpa0 loss in primary murine cells and an experimental cell system, we found that reduced Hnrnpa0 expression leads to a shift from monocytic towards granulocytic differentiation. Microarray-based global expression profiling revealed that Hnrnpa0 knockdown disproportionally impacts ARE-containing transcripts and alters expression of myeloid specification genes. The biological importance of ARE-containing genes in myeloid neoplasms is further supported by changes in gene expression of ARE-mRNAs in t-MN del(5q) patients, predicted by pathway analysis to activate tumor growth. Together, our findings suggest that alterations in ARE-containing genes can positively regulate the cellular proliferation of del(5q) cells and implicate haploinsufficiency of HNRNPA0 as one of the key initiation mutations in the pathogenesis of t-MN. Gene expression profiling was performed on 38 single t-MN tumor samples. No control or reference samples were included.
Project description:Deletion of chromosome 5q (del(5q)) is the most common karyotypic abnormality in myeloid neoplasms.To define the pathogenic molecular features associated with del(5q), next-generation sequencing was applied to 133 patients with myeloid neoplasms (MDS; N = 69, MDS/MPN; N = 5, sAML; N = 29, pAML; N = 30) with del(5q) as a sole abnormally or a part of complex karyotype and results were compared to molecular features of patients diploid for chr5.A number of 5q genes with haploinsufficient expression and/or recurrent somatic mutations were identified; for these genes, CSNK1A1 and G3BP1 within the commonly deleted 5q region and DDX41 within a commonly retained region were most commonly affected by somatic mutations. These genes showed consistent haploinsufficiency in deleted cases; low expression/mutations of G3BP1 or DDX41 were associated with poor survival, likely due to decreased cellular function. The most common mutations on other chromosomes in patients with del(5q) included TP53, and mutations of FLT3 (ITD or TKD), NPM1 or TET2 and were mutually exclusive. Serial sequencing allowed for definition of clonal architecture and dynamics, in patients with exome sequencing allelic imbalance for informative SNPs facilitated simultaneous approximation of clonal size of del(5q) and clonal burden for somatic mutations.Our results illuminate the spectrum of molecular defects characteristic of del(5q), their clinical impact and succession of stepwise evolution.
Project description:Loss of a whole chromosome 5 or a deletion of the long arm of chromosome 5, -5/del(5q), is a recurring abnormality in myeloid neoplasms. The APC gene is located at chromosome band 5q23, and is deleted in more than 95% of patients with a -5/del(5q), raising the question of whether haploinsufficiency of APC contributes to the development of myeloid neoplasms with loss of 5q. We show that conditional inactivation of a single allele of Apc in mice leads to the development of severe anemia with macrocytosis and monocytosis. Further characterization of the erythroid lineage revealed that erythropoiesis is blocked at the early stages of differentiation. The long-term hematopoietic stem cell (LT-HSC) and short-term HSC (ST-HSC) populations are expanded in Apc-heterozygous mice compared with the control littermates; however, the HSCs have a reduced capacity to regenerate hematopoiesis in vivo in the absence of a single allele of Apc. Apc heterozygous myeloid progenitor cells display an increased frequency of apoptosis, and decreased in vitro colony-forming capacity, recapitulating several characteristic features of myeloid neoplasms with a -5/del(5q). Our results indicate that haploinsufficiency of Apc impairs hematopoiesis, and raise the possibility that loss of function of APC contributes to the development of myelodysplasia.
Project description:Chromosome 5q deletions (del[5q]) are common in high-risk (HR) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML); however, the gene regulatory networks that sustain these aggressive diseases are unknown. Reduced miR-146a expression in del(5q) HR MDS/AML and miR-146a(-/-) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) results in TRAF6/NF-?B activation. Increased survival and proliferation of HSPCs from miR-146a(low) HR MDS/AML is sustained by a neighboring haploid gene, SQSTM1 (p62), expressed from the intact 5q allele. Overexpression of p62 from the intact allele occurs through NF-?B-dependent feedforward signaling mediated by miR-146a deficiency. p62 is necessary for TRAF6-mediated NF-?B signaling, as disrupting the p62-TRAF6 signaling complex results in cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis of MDS/AML cells. Thus, del(5q) HR MDS/AML employs an intrachromosomal gene network involving loss of miR-146a and haploid overexpression of p62 via NF-?B to sustain TRAF6/NF-?B signaling for cell survival and proliferation. Interfering with the p62-TRAF6 signaling complex represents a therapeutic option in miR-146a-deficient and aggressive del(5q) MDS/AML.
Project description:Lenalidomide is the first karyotype-selective therapeutic approved for the treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) owing to high rates of erythroid and cytogenetic response in patients with chromosome 5q deletion [del(5q)]. Although haploinsufficiency for the RPS14 gene and others encoded within the common deleted region (CDR) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the del(5q) phenotype, the molecular basis of the karyotype specificity of lenalidomide remains unexplained. We focused our analysis on possible haplodeficient enzymatic targets encoded within the CDR that play key roles in cell-cycle regulation. We show that the dual specificity phosphatases, Cdc25C and PP2Acalpha, which are coregulators of the G(2)-M checkpoint, are inhibited by lenalidomide. Gene expression was lower in MDS and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) specimens with del(5q) compared with those with alternate karyotypes. Lenalidomide inhibited phosphatase activity either directly (Cdc25C) or indirectly (PP2A) with corresponding retention of inhibitory phospho-tyrosine residues. Treatment of del(5q) AML cells with lenalidomide induced G(2) arrest and apoptosis, whereas there was no effect in nondel(5q) AML cells. Small interfering RNA (shRNA) suppression of Cdc25C and PP2Acalpha gene expression recapitulated del(5q) susceptibility to lenalidomide with induction of G(2) arrest and apoptosis in both U937 and primary nondel(5q) MDS cells. These data establish a role for allelic haplodeficiency of the lenalidomide inhibitable Cdc25C and PP2Acalpha phosphatases in the selective drug sensitivity of del(5q) MDS.