Project description:We report four draft genome sequences of Nocardia spp. The strains are the Nocardia cyriacigeorgica DSM 44484 pathogenic type strain; two environmental isolates, Nocardia cyriacigeorgica EML446 and EML1456; and the Nocardia asteroides ATCC 19247 nonpathogenic type strain, with estimated genome sizes of 6.3 to 6.8?Mb. The study of these isolates will provide insight into physiology, evolution, and pathogenicity of Nocardia spp.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Nocardia species are rare, opportunistic organisms that cause disease in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the clinical presentations of various Nocardia infections based on the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of the isolate, as well as related risk factors and susceptibility patterns to antimicrobial agents. METHODS:Thirteen patients with a diagnosis of nocardiosis were included in the present study. Seven Nocardia species were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA. Susceptibility testing was performed using six antimicrobial agents. RESULTS:Five patients were immunocompromised, and eight were immunocompetent with predisposing factors including cystic fibrosis, tuberculosis and ophthalmic infections. Nocardia caused pulmonary infections in eight patients (61.5%), invasive systemic infections in three patients (23%) and local (ophthalmic) infections in two patients (15.4%). In the patients with pulmonary disease, nocardiosis was caused by six species (Nocardia cyriacigeorgica, Nocardia otitidiscaviarum, Nocardia farcinica, Nocardia carnea, Nocardia testacea and Nocardia asiatica). The seventh species identified in the present study was Nocardia crassostreae. DISCUSSION:N crassostreae is a multidrug-resistant organism that was reported to be an emerging human pathogen causing invasive nocardiosis in a patient with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. N farcinica was isolated from blood in a patient with breast cancer. None of the Nocardia isolates were resistant to linezolid. One N otitidiscaviarum isolate was a multidrug-resistant organism. All patients in the present study were treated with the appropriate antibiotics and their condition resolved without further sequelae. CONCLUSIONS:The present study is the first report on N crassostreae as a human pathogen. The detection of multidrug-resistant species necessitate molecular identification and susceptibility testing, and should be performed for all Nocardia infections. Nocardiosis manifests various clinical features depending on the Nocardia species and underlying conditions.
Project description:We report two cases of Nocardia cyriacigeorgica septicemia and disseminated infection in the setting of profound immunodeficiency. In both instances, diagnosis was rapidly facilitated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of blood culture isolates. These constitute the first confirmed reports of Nocardia cyriacigeorgica bloodstream infection in humans.
Project description:Two strains of Nocardia spp. were isolated from bovine milk of two individual bulk tank. Molecular identification classified the strains as Nocardia farcinica and Nocardia cyriacigeorgica. The thermorresistance to boiling of the isolates was carried out and was observed bacterial growth after boiling. Our findings indicate the potential risk of pathogen transmission to humans through contaminated milk with Nocardia spp.
Project description:The taxonomic positions of two novel aerobic, Gram-stain-positive Actinobacteria, designated RB20T and RB56T, were determined using a polyphasic approach. Both were isolated from the fungus-farming termite Macrotermes natalensis. Results of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that both strains are members of the genus Nocardia with the closest phylogenetic neighbours Nocardia miyunensis JCM12860T (98.9?%) and Nocardia nova DSM44481T (98.5?%) for RB20T and Nocardia takedensis DSM 44801T (98.3?%), Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis DSM 44290T (98.3?%) and Nocardia rayongensis JCM 19832T (98.2?%) for RB56T. Digital DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) between RB20T and N. miyunensis JCM12860T and N. nova DSM 44481T resulted in similarity values of 33.9 and 22.0?%, respectively. DDH between RB56T and N. takedensis DSM44801T and N. pseudobrasiliensis DSM44290T showed similarity values of 20.7 and 22.3?%, respectively. In addition, wet-lab DDH between RB56T and N. rayongensis JCM19832T resulted in 10.2?% (14.5?%) similarity. Both strains showed morphological and chemotaxonomic features typical for the genus Nocardia, such as the presence of meso-diaminopimelic acid (A2pm) within the cell wall, arabinose and galactose as major sugar components within whole cell-wall hydrolysates, the presence of mycolic acids and major phospholipids (diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol), and the predominant menaquinone MK-8 (H4, ?-cyclo). The main fatty acids for both strains were hexadecanoic acid (C16?:?0), 10-methyloctadecanoic acid (10-methyl C18?:?0) and cis-9-octadecenoic acid (C18?:?1 ?9c). We propose two novel species within the genus Nocardia: Nocardia macrotermitis sp. nov. with the type strain RB20T (=VKM Ac-2841T=NRRL B65541T) and Nocardia aurantia sp. nov. with the type strain RB56T (=VKM Ac-2842T=NRRL B65542T).
Project description:Nocardia isolates that share the property of in vitro amikacin resistance are grouped together by some authors in the Nocardia transvalensis complex. Our examination of 13 isolates that are amikacin resistant has revealed the existence of three distinct species. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA, 65-kDa heat shock protein, and secA1 genes, coupled with DNA-DNA hybridization, indicated that "N. asteroides drug pattern IV," "N. transvalensis new taxon 1," and N. transvalensis sensu stricto should each be considered a distinct species. The phenotypic and molecular characteristics of the proposed new species Nocardia wallacei (N. asteroides drug pattern IV) and N. blacklockiae (N. transvalensis new taxon 1) are presented and compared with those of N. transvalensis sensu stricto. The relative genetic diversity of isolates best placed with the species N. blacklockiae is also discussed. Case studies demonstrating the pathogenicity of N. wallacei and N. blacklockiae are presented. The type strain of N. wallacei is ATCC 49873 (DSM 45136), and that of N. blacklockiae is ATCC 700035 (DSM 45135).
Project description:Nocardia cerebral abscess is rare, constituting approximately 1-2% of all cerebral abscesses. Mortality for a cerebral abscess of Nocardia is three times higher than that of other bacterial cerebral abscesses, therefore, early diagnosis and therapy is important. Nocardia cerebral abscess is generally occur among immunocompromised patients, and critical infection in immunocompetent patients is extremely rare. We report on a case of a brain abscess by Nocardia farcinica in an immunocompetent patient who received treatment with surgery and antibiotics. This is the second case of a brain abscess caused by N. farcinica in an immunocompetent patient in Korea.
Project description:Nocardia infection following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) allograft reconstruction is a rare occurrence. We report a case of Nocardia infection of an allograft ACL reconstruction and septic arthritis of the knee joint due to an organism most similar to the novel Nocardia species Nocardia aobensis.
Project description:There is a paucity of efficacious antimicrobials (especially oral) against clinically relevant species of Nocardia To date, all species of Nocardia have been susceptible to linezolid, the first commercially available oxazolidinone. Tedizolid is a new oxazolidinone with previously reported improved in vitro and in vivo (intracellular) potency against multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium sp. and Nocardia brasiliensis Using the current Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute-recommended broth microdilution method, 101 isolates of Nocardia spp., including 29 Nocardia cyriacigeorgica, 17 Nocardia farcinica, 13 Nocardia nova complex, 21 Nocardia brasiliensis, 5 Nocardia pseudobrasiliensis, and 5 Nocardia wallacei isolates and 11 isolates of less common species, were tested for susceptibility to tedizolid and linezolid. For the most common clinically significant species of Nocardia, tedizolid MIC50 values were 0.25 ?g/ml for N. nova complex, N. brasiliensis, N. pseudobrasiliensis, and N. wallacei, compared to linezolid MIC50 values of 1, 2, 0.5, and 1 ?g/ml, respectively. Tedizolid and linezolid MIC90 values were 2 ?g/ml for N. nova complex and N. brasiliensis Tedizolid MIC50 and MIC90 values for both N. cyriacigeorgica and N. farcinica were 0.5 ?g/ml and 1 ?g/ml, respectively, compared to linezolid MIC50 and MIC90 values of 2 and 4 ?g/ml, respectively. Based on MIC90 values, this study showed that tedizolid was 2- to 3-fold more active than linezolid in vitro against most common species of Nocardia, with the exception of the N. nova complex and N. brasiliensis, for which values were the same. These results may warrant evaluation of tedizolid as a potential treatment option for Nocardia infections.
Project description:Bacterial mycetoma is a neglected disease mainly observed in tropical area countries and typically associated with rural conditions, making its presence in developed countries of temperate climate areas rare. However, we report the first case of an autochthonous mycetoma case in continental France that originated from a new Nocardia species. A Gram-positive filamentous bacterium (OFN 14.177T) was isolated from a pus sample from the mycetoma of a male French patient 92 years old suffering from chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The isolate was analyzed by a polyphasic taxonomic approach by coupling morphological, biochemical, physiological, and chemotaxonomic aspects to genomic and phylogenetic analyses. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) using four housekeeping genes (16S rRNA gene, secA1, hsp65, and sod) combined with phylogenetic analysis revealed that the strain OFN 14.177T is phylogenetically closer not only to Nocardia altamirensis but also to all other species comprising the Nocardia brasiliensis clade (i.e., N. brasiliensis, N. altamirensis, N. vulneris, N. iowensis, and N. tenerifensis), some of which present cutaneous tropism. The G+C content of isolate OFN 14.177T was 68.2 mol%. DNA-DNA hybridization analyses demonstrated 38.25% relative reassociation with N. altamirensis. The strain OFN 14.177T is different from the closest species at genetic and phenotypical levels, and the data obtained indicate that it should be recognized as a new species, for which the name of Nocardia boironii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is OFN 14.177T (= EML 1451 = DSM 101696). IMPORTANCE Bacterial mycetoma is an endemic infection in areas with tropical and subtropical climates. Thus, its presence in temperate climate areas remains rare. We report here the first case of autochthonous actinomycetoma in continental France originating from a Nocardia species other than N. brasiliensis, namely, Nocardia boironii. Considering the history of the patient, the infection source of strain OFN 14.177T may be from frequent contact with the soil over many years because of his gardening activities. The discovery of a French autochthonous Nocardia species responsible for actinomycetoma reveals the importance of considering the possibility of having autochthonous infections of this type in nontropical countries, not only imported cases from tropical countries. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the real incidence of this new species.