Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE40441: Comparison of Splenic Nrp1- and Nrp1+ Treg Populations GSE40443: iTreg cells compared to WT Total Treg Refer to individual Series
Project description:The colonic lamina propria contains a distinct population of Foxp3+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) that modulate responses to commensal microbes. Analysis of gene expression revealed that the transcriptome of colonic Tregs is distinct from splenic and other tissue Tregs. Rorγ and Helios in colonic Tregs mark distinct populations: Rorγ+Helios- or Rorγ-Helios+ Tregs. We uncovered an unanticipated role for Rorγ, a transcription factor generally considered to be antagonistic to Foxp3. Rorγ in colonic Tregs accounts for a small but specific part of the colon-specific Treg signature. Nrp1- Tregs were sorted from Foxp3-cre.Rorcfl/fl mice, which have a Treg-selective deletion of Rorc, or paired WT littermates. For low-input RNAseq, 1,000 TCRb+CD4+YFP(Foxp3)+Nrp1- cells were double-sorted into Trizol, RNA extracted and reverse-transcribed using ArrayScript (Ambion). To reduce variability at least three replicates were generated.
Project description:Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are a barrier to anti-tumor immunity. Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) is required to maintain intratumoral Treg stability and function but is dispensable for peripheral immune tolerance. Treg-restricted Nrp1 deletion results in profound tumor resistance due to Treg functional fragility. Thus, identifying the basis for Nrp1 dependency and the key drivers of Treg fragility could help to improve immunotherapy for human cancer. We show that a high percentage of intratumoral NRP1+ Tregs correlates with poor prognosis in melanoma and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Using a mouse model of melanoma where Nrp1-deficient (Nrp1-/-) and wild-type (Nrp1+/+) Tregs can be assessed in a competitive environment, we find that a high proportion of intratumoral Nrp1-/- Tregs produce interferon-? (IFN?), which drives the fragility of surrounding wild-type Tregs, boosts anti-tumor immunity, and facilitates tumor clearance. We also show that IFN?-induced Treg fragility is required for response to anti-PD1, suggesting that cancer therapies promoting Treg fragility may be efficacious.
Project description:Several mechanisms of immune suppression have been attributed to Foxp3+ T regulatory cells (Treg) including modulation of target cells via inhibition of cell proliferation, alteration of cytokine secretion, and modification of cell phenotype, among others. Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1), a co-receptor protein highly expressed on Treg cells has been involved in tolerance-mediated responses, driving tumor growth and transplant acceptance. Here, we extend our previous findings showing that, despite expressing Foxp3, Nrp1KO Treg cells have deficient suppressive function in vitro in a contact-independent manner. In vivo, the presence of Nrp1 on Treg cells is required for driving long-term transplant tolerance. Interestingly, Nrp1 expression on Treg cells was also necessary for conventional CD4+ T cells (convT) to become Nrp1+Eos+ T cells in vivo. Furthermore, adoptive transfer experiments showed that the disruption of Nrp1 expression on Treg cells not only reduced IL-10 production on Treg cells, but also increased the frequency of IFN?+ Treg cells. Similarly, the presence of Nrp1KO Treg cells facilitated the occurrence of IFN?+CD4+ T cells. Interestingly, we proved that Nrp1KO Treg cells are also defective in IL-10 production, which correlates with deficient Nrp1 upregulation by convT cells. Altogether, these findings demonstrate the direct role of Nrp1 on Treg cells during the induction of transplantation tolerance, impacting indirectly the phenotype and function of conventional CD4+ T cells.
Project description:Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) have a crucial role in the immune system by preventing autoimmunity, limiting immunopathology, and maintaining immune homeostasis. However, they also represent a major barrier to effective anti-tumour immunity and sterilizing immunity to chronic viral infections. The transcription factor Foxp3 has a major role in the development and programming of Treg cells. The relative stability of Treg cells at inflammatory disease sites has been a highly contentious subject. There is considerable interest in identifying pathways that control the stability of Treg cells as many immune-mediated diseases are characterized by either exacerbated or limited Treg-cell function. Here we show that the immune-cell-expressed ligand semaphorin-4a (Sema4a) and the Treg-cell-expressed receptor neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) interact both in vitro, to potentiate Treg-cell function and survival, and in vivo, at inflammatory sites. Using mice with a Treg-cell-restricted deletion of Nrp1, we show that Nrp1 is dispensable for suppression of autoimmunity and maintenance of immune homeostasis, but is required by Treg cells to limit anti-tumour immune responses and to cure established inflammatory colitis. Sema4a ligation of Nrp1 restrained Akt phosphorylation cellularly and at the immunologic synapse by phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN), which increased nuclear localization of the transcription factor Foxo3a. The Nrp1-induced transcriptome promoted Treg-cell stability by enhancing quiescence and survival factors while inhibiting programs that promote differentiation. Importantly, this Nrp1-dependent molecular program is evident in intra-tumoral Treg cells. Our data support a model in which Treg-cell stability can be subverted in certain inflammatory sites, but is maintained by a Sema4a-Nrp1 axis, highlighting this pathway as a potential therapeutic target that could limit Treg-cell-mediated tumour-induced tolerance without inducing autoimmunity.
Project description:Regulatory T (Treg) cells are characterized by the expression of CD4, CD25 and the intracellular Foxp3. However, these markers do not indicate whether Treg cells are thymic derived Treg (tTreg) cells or peripherally induced Treg (pTreg) cells. Recently, Helios and Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) has been reported as potential markers for tTreg cells. Herein, we used flow cytometry to examine the proportion of CD4(+)CD8(-)CD25(+) Treg cells expressing Helios, Nrp1 and Foxp3 in thymus, pancreatic draining lymph nodes (PDLNs) and spleen of CD-1 mice, and thymus of NOD and C57BL/6 mice. The frequency of Helios(+) cells was higher than that of Nrp1(+) cells in CD4(+)CD8(-)CD25(+) and CD4(+)CD8(-)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells in thymus. Interestingly, the proportion of IL-10(+), Ebi3(+)and CTLA-4(+) cells was higher in Helios(+) than Nrp1(+) tTreg cells. The anti-apoptotic activity of Helios(+) tTreg cells was higher in thymus compared to Nrp1(+) tTreg cells. Nrp1 seems to be expressed at a later developmental stage compared to Helios and Foxp3. Furthermore, the expression of Nrp1 in CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells of younger mice did not increase after stimulating them in vitro with anti-CD3 and -CD28. Thus, under these conditions, Helios could be considered a more reliable marker for distinguishing tTreg cells from pTreg cells than Nrp1.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Insights into the micro-evolutionary patterns of morphological traits require an assessment of the natural variation of the trait within and between populations and closely related species. The mouse mandible is a particularly suitable morphological trait for such an analysis, since it has long been used as a model to study the quantitative genetics of shape. In addition, many distinct populations, sub-species and closely related species are known for the house mouse. However, morphological comparisons among wild caught animals require an assessment in how far environmental and technical factors could interfere with the shape change measurements. RESULTS: Using geometric morphometrics, we have surveyed mandible shapes in 15 natural populations of the genus Mus, with a focus on the subspecies Mus musculus domesticus. In parallel we have carefully assessed possibly confounding technical and biological factors. We find that there are distinct differences on average between populations, subspecies and species, but these differences are smaller than differences between individuals within populations. Populations from summer-dry regions, although more ancestral, are less distinct from each other than are populations from the more recently colonized northern areas. Populations with especially distinct shapes occur in an area of sympatry of M. m. domesticus and M. spretus and on recently colonized sub-antarctic islands. We have also studied a number of inbred strains to assess in how far their mandible shapes resemble those from the wild. We find that they fall indeed into the shape space of natural variation between individuals in populations. CONCLUSIONS: Although mandible shapes in natural populations can be influenced by environmental variables, these influences are insufficient to explain the average extent of shape differences between populations, such that evolutionary processes must be invoked to explain this level of diversity. We discuss that adaptive evolution may contribute to shape changes between populations, in particular in newly colonized areas. A comparison between inbred strains and wild mice suggests that the laboratory environment has no major systematic effect on the mandible shape and that such strains can be used as representatives of the natural shape differences between individuals.
Project description:We report the design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of some potent small-molecule neuropilin-1 (NRP1) antagonists. NRP1 is implicated in the immune response to tumors, particularly in Treg cell fragility, required for PD1 checkpoint blockade. The design of these compounds was based on a previously identified compound EG00229. The design of these molecules was informed and supported by X-ray crystal structures. Compound 1 (EG01377) was identified as having properties suitable for further investigation. Compound 1 was then tested in several in vitro assays and was shown to have antiangiogenic, antimigratory, and antitumor effects. Remarkably, 1 was shown to be selective for NRP1 over the closely related protein NRP2. In purified Nrp1+, FoxP3+, and CD25+ populations of Tregs from mice, 1 was able to block a glioma-conditioned medium-induced increase in TGF? production. This comprehensive characterization of a small-molecule NRP1 antagonist provides the basis for future in vivo studies.
Project description:Wild populations of the house mouse (Mus musculus) represent the raw genetic material for the classical inbred strains in biomedical research and are a major model system for evolutionary biology. We provide whole genome sequencing data of individuals representing natural populations of M. m. domesticus (24 individuals from 3 populations), M. m. helgolandicus (3 individuals), M. m. musculus (22 individuals from 3 populations) and M. spretus (8 individuals from one population). We use a single pipeline to map and call variants for these individuals and also include 10 additional individuals of M. m. castaneus for which genomic data are publically available. In addition, RNAseq data were obtained from 10 tissues of up to eight adult individuals from each of the three M. m. domesticus populations for which genomic data were collected. Data and analyses are presented via tracks viewable in the UCSC or IGV genome browsers. We also provide information on available outbred stocks and instructions on how to keep them in the laboratory.
Project description:Mouse t haplotypes are variants of chromosome 17, consisting of four inversions. Despite the homozygous lethality and pleiotropic effect on embryonic development, sperm production, and recombination, they have widely spread in natural populations of the house mouse (10-40% in frequency) because of the meiotic drive advantage. We sequenced 14 Tcp-1 (t-complex polypeptide 1) genes from four t haplotypes, nine wild mice, and a rat as a reference. From a comparison of intron sequences of 610 base pairs, we dated the origin of t haplotypes to 2.9 +/- 0.7 million years ago, which predates the splitting of Mus musculus subspecies (approximately 1 million years ago). However, the Tcp-1 intron sequences of t haplotypes from different M. musculus subspecies from various parts of the world show no divergence, indicating the recent introgression (no earlier than 0.8 million years ago) of a single ancestral type. Nucleotide changes in coding regions are also consistent with this conclusion. Hence, polymorphisms among t haplotypes including lethality factors have accumulated during this short time period independently in each M. musculus subspecies.