Project description:The Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico resulted in a deep-sea hydrocarbon plume that caused a shift in the indigenous microbial community composition with unknown ecological consequences. Early in the spill history, a bloom of uncultured, thus uncharacterized, members of the Oceanospirillales was previously detected, but their role in oil disposition was unknown. Here our aim was to determine the functional role of the Oceanospirillales and other active members of the indigenous microbial community using deep sequencing of community DNA and RNA, as well as single-cell genomics. Shotgun metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing revealed that genes for motility, chemotaxis and aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation were significantly enriched and expressed in the hydrocarbon plume samples compared with uncontaminated seawater collected from plume depth. In contrast, although genes coding for degradation of more recalcitrant compounds, such as benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, total xylenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, were identified in the metagenomes, they were expressed at low levels, or not at all based on analysis of the metatranscriptomes. Isolation and sequencing of two Oceanospirillales single cells revealed that both cells possessed genes coding for n-alkane and cycloalkane degradation. Specifically, the near-complete pathway for cyclohexane oxidation in the Oceanospirillales single cells was elucidated and supported by both metagenome and metatranscriptome data. The draft genome also included genes for chemotaxis, motility and nutrient acquisition strategies that were also identified in the metagenomes and metatranscriptomes. These data point towards a rapid response of members of the Oceanospirillales to aliphatic hydrocarbons in the deep sea.
Project description:A metagenomic library of sea sediment metagenome containing 245,000 recombinant clones representing ~ 2.45 Gb of sea sediment microbial DNA was constructed. Two unique arsenic resistance clones, A7 and A12, were identified by selection on sodium arsenite containing medium. Clone A7 showed a six-fold higher resistance to arsenate [As(V)], a three-fold higher resistance to arsenite [As(III)] and significantly increased resistance to antimony [Sb(III)], while clone A12 showed increased resistance only to sodium arsenite and not to the other two metalloids. The clones harbored inserts of 8.848 Kb and 6.771 Kb, respectively. Both the clones possess A + T rich nucleotide sequence with similarity to sequences from marine psychrophilic bacteria. Sequence and transposon-mutagenesis based analysis revealed the presence of a putative arsenate reductase (ArsC), a putative arsenite efflux pump (ArsB/ACR) and a putative NADPH-dependent FMN reductase (ArsH) in both the clones and also a putative transcriptional regulatory protein (ArsR) in pA7. The increased resistance of clone A7 to As(V), As(III) and Sb(III) indicates functional expression of ArsC and ArsB proteins from pA7. The absence of increased As(V) resistance in clone A12 may be due to the expression of a possible inactive ArsC, as conserved Arg60 residue in this protein was replaced by Glu60, while the absence of Sb(III) resistance may be due to the presence of an ACR3p-type arsenite pump, which is known to lack antimony transport ability.