Project description:We report the complete genome sequence of Flavonifractor plautii JCM 32125T (=VPI 0310T). The genome consists of a single circular chromosome of 3,985,392?bp (G+C content, 60.9%) and was predicted to contain 3 complete sets of rRNA genes, 63 tRNA genes, and 3,764 protein-coding sequences.
Project description:Recently, dysbiosis in the human gut microbiome and shifts in the relative abundances of several bacterial species have been recognized as important factors in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, these studies have been carried out mainly in developed countries where CRC has a high incidence, and it is unclear whether the host-microbiome relationships deduced from these studies can be generalized to the global population. To test if the documented associations between the microbiome and CRC are conserved in a distinct context, we performed metagenomic and metabolomic association studies on fecal samples from 30 CRC patients and 30 healthy controls from two different locations in India, followed by a comparison of CRC data available from other populations. We confirmed the association of Bacteroides and other bacterial taxa with CRC that have been previously reported in other studies. However, the association of CRC with Flavonifractor plautii in Indian patients emerged as a novel finding. The plausible role of F. plautii appears to be linked with the degradation of beneficial anticarcinogenic flavonoids, which was also found to be significantly correlated with the enzymes and modules involved in flavonoid degradation within Indian CRC samples. Thus, we hypothesize that the degradation of beneficial flavonoids might be playing a role in cancer progression within this Indian cohort. We also identified 20 potential microbial taxonomic markers and 33 potential microbial gene markers that discriminate the Indian CRC from healthy microbiomes with high accuracy based on machine learning approaches.IMPORTANCE This study provides novel insights on the CRC-associated microbiome of a unique cohort in India, reveals the potential role of a new bacterium in CRC, and identifies cohort-specific biomarkers, which can potentially be used in noninvasive diagnosis of CRC. The study gains additional significance, as India is among the countries with a very low incidence of CRC, and the diet and lifestyle in India have been associated with a distinct gut microbiome in healthy Indians compared to other global populations. Thus, in this study, we hypothesize a unique relationship between CRC and the gut microbiome in an Indian population.
Project description:The bacterium Flavonifractor plautii (FP), which is found in human feces, has been reported to participate in catechin metabolism in the gut, but this bacterium's effects on immune function are unclear. We assessed the effect of oral administration of FP on the immune response in ovalbumin (OVA) -sensitized mice. We demonstrated that the FP treatment suppressed interleukin (IL)-4 in splenocytes and OVA-specific IgE production in serum from OVA-sensitized mice. Moreover, oral administration of FP augmented CD4+CD25+ T cells and CD103+CD11c+ DCs. In animals of the FP group, the proportion of FP was increased in the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), as was the proportion of Deferribacteres in the cecum. Oral administration of FP may inhibit the Th2 immune response by incorporation into the MLNs and/or by inducing changes in the gut microbiota. Thus, FP may be useful in alleviating antigen-induced Th2 immune responses.
Project description:The goal of the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) is to generate a comprehensive catalog of human-associated microorganisms including reference genomes representing the most common species. Toward this goal, the HMP has characterized the microbial communities at 18 body habitats in a cohort of over 200 healthy volunteers using 16S rRNA gene (16S) sequencing and has generated nearly 1,000 reference genomes from human-associated microorganisms. To determine how well current reference genome collections capture the diversity observed among the healthy microbiome and to guide isolation and future sequencing of microbiome members, we compared the HMP's 16S data sets to several reference 16S collections to create a 'most wanted' list of taxa for sequencing. Our analysis revealed that the diversity of commonly occurring taxa within the HMP cohort microbiome is relatively modest, few novel taxa are represented by these OTUs and many common taxa among HMP volunteers recur across different populations of healthy humans. Taken together, these results suggest that it should be possible to perform whole-genome sequencing on a large fraction of the human microbiome, including the 'most wanted', and that these sequences should serve to support microbiome studies across multiple cohorts. Also, in stark contrast to other taxa, the 'most wanted' organisms are poorly represented among culture collections suggesting that novel culture- and single-cell-based methods will be required to isolate these organisms for sequencing.
Project description:Understanding gut microbiome functions requires cultivated bacteria for experimental validation and reference bacterial genome sequences to interpret metagenome datasets and guide functional analyses. We present the Human Gastrointestinal Bacteria Culture Collection (HBC), a comprehensive set of 737 whole-genome-sequenced bacterial isolates, representing 273 species (105 novel species) from 31 families found in the human gastrointestinal microbiota. The HBC increases the number of bacterial genomes derived from human gastrointestinal microbiota by 37%. The resulting global Human Gastrointestinal Bacteria Genome Collection (HGG) classifies 83% of genera by abundance across 13,490 shotgun-sequenced metagenomic samples, improves taxonomic classification by 61% compared to the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) genome collection and achieves subspecies-level classification for almost 50% of sequences. The improved resource of gastrointestinal bacterial reference sequences circumvents dependence on de novo assembly of metagenomes and enables accurate and cost-effective shotgun metagenomic analyses of human gastrointestinal microbiota.