Project description:BACKGROUND:Capra hircus is an important economic livestock animal, and therefore, it is necessary to discover transcriptome information about their reproductive performance. In this study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce the first transcriptome dataset for the goat ovary using high-throughput sequencing technologies. The result will contribute to research on goat reproductive performance. METHOD AND RESULTS:RNA-seq analysis generated more than 38.8 million clean paired end (PE) reads, which were assembled into 80,069 unigenes (mean size = 619 bp). Based on sequence similarity searches, 64,824 (60.6%) genes were identified, among which 29,444 and 11,271 unigenes were assigned to Gene Ontology (GO) categories and Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG), respectively. Searches in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database (KEGG) showed that 27,766 (63.4%) unigenes were mapped to 258 KEGG pathways. Furthermore, we investigated the transcriptome differences of goat ovaries at two different ages using a tag-based digital gene expression system. We obtained a sequencing depth of over 5.6 million and 5.8 million tags for the two ages and identified a large number of genes associated with reproductive hormones, ovulatory cycle and follicle. Moreover, many antisense transcripts and novel transcripts were found; clusters with similar differential expression patterns, enriched GO terms and metabolic pathways were revealed for the first time with regard to the differentially expressed genes. CONCLUSIONS:The transcriptome provides invaluable new data for a functional genomic resource and future biological research in Capra hircus, and it is essential for the in-depth study of candidate genes in breeding programs.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Black Bengal goat (Capra hircus), a member of the Bovidae family with the unique traits of high prolificacy, skin quality and low demand for food is the most socioeconomically significant goat breed in Bangladesh. Furthermore, the aptitude of adaptation and disease resistance capacity of it is highly notable which makes its whole genome information an area of research interest. DATA DESCRIPTION:The genomic DNA of a local (Chattogram, Bangladesh) healthy male Black Bengal goat (Capra hircus) was extracted and then sequenced. Sequencing was completed using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 sequencing platform and the draft assembly was generated using the "ARS1" genome as the reference. MAKER gene annotation pipeline was utilized to annotate 26,458 gene models. Genome completeness was assessed using BUSCO (Benchmarking Universal Single-Copy Orthologs) which showed 82.5% completeness of the assembled genome.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1, CD11a/CD18, alpha L beta 2) is required for many cellular adhesive interactions during the immune response. METHODS: We used SMART RACE technology to obtain caprine CD11a 5'- and 3'-ends and RT-PCR to amplify the full-length CDS. RESULTS: The Capra hircus CD11a-encoding cDNA was sequenced and compared with its human, murine, rat, bovine and ovine counterparts. Despite some focal differences, it shares all the main characteristics of its known mammalian homologues. CONCLUSION: Therefore, along with the caprine CD18-encoding cDNA, which has been available for a few months, the sequence data revealed here will allow the Capra hircus LFA-1 expression in vitro as a tool to explore the specificities of inflammation in the caprine species.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) experiments, accurate and reliable target gene expression results are dependent on optimal amplification of house-keeping genes (HKGs). RNA-seq technology offers a novel approach to detect new HKGs with improved stability. Goat (Capra hircus) is an economically important livestock species and plays an indispensable role in the world animal fiber and meat industry. Unfortunately, uniform and reliable HKGs for skin research have not been identified in goat. Therefore, this study seeks to identify a set of stable HKGs for the skin tissue of C. hircus using high-throughput sequencing technology. RESULTS:Based on the transcriptome dataset of 39 goat skin tissue samples, 8 genes (SRP68, NCBP3, RRAGA, EIF4H, CTBP2, PTPRA, CNBP, and EEF2) with relatively stable expression levels were identified and selected as new candidate HKGs. Commonly used HKGs including SDHA and YWHAZ from a previous study, and 2 conventional genes (ACTB and GAPDH) were also examined. Four different experimental variables: (1) different development stages, (2) hair follicle cycle stages, (3) breeds, and (4) sampling sites were used for determination and validation. Four algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and ?Ct method) and a comprehensive algorithm (ComprFinder, developed in-house) were used to assess the stability of each HKG. It was shown that NCBP3?+?SDHA?+?PTPRA were more stably expressed than previously used genes in all conditions analysis, and that this combination was effective at normalizing target gene expression. Moreover, a new algorithm for comprehensive analysis, ComprFinder, was developed and released. CONCLUSION:This study presents the first list of candidate HKGs for C. hircus skin tissues based on an RNA-seq dataset. We propose that the NCBP3?+?SDHA?+?PTPRA combination could be regarded as a triplet set of HKGs in skin molecular biology experiments in C. hircus and other closely related species. In addition, we also encourage researchers who perform candidate HKG evaluations and who require comprehensive analysis to adopt our new algorithm, ComprFinder.
Project description:Intramuscular fat (IMF) content and fatty acid composition of longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) change with growth, which partially determines the flavor and nutritional value of goat (Capra hircus) meat. However, unlike cattle, little information is available on the transcriptome-wide changes during different postnatal stages in small ruminants, especially goats. In this study, the sequencing reads of goat LM tissues collected from kid, youth, and adult period were mapped to the goat genome. Results showed that out of total 24 689 Unigenes, 20 435 Unigenes were annotated. Based on expected number of fragments per kilobase of transcript sequence per million base pairs sequenced (FPKM), 111 annotated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified among different postnatal stages, which were subsequently assigned to 16 possible expression patterns by series-cluster analysis. Functional classification by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis was used for selecting the genes showing highest expression related to lipid metabolism. Finally, we identified the node genes for lipid metabolism regulation using co-expression analysis. In conclusion, these data may uncover candidate genes having functional roles in regulation of goat muscle development and lipid metabolism during the various growth stages in goats.
Project description:The dermal papilla is thought to establish the character and control the size of hair follicles. Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats (Capra hircus) have a double coat comprising the primary and secondary hair follicles, which have dramatically different sizes and textures. The Cashmere goat is rapidly becoming a potent model for hair follicle morphogenesis research. In this study, we established two dermal papilla cell lines during the anagen phase of the hair growth cycle from the primary and secondary hair follicles and clarified the similarities and differences in their morphology and growth characteristics. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing was used to identify gene expression differences between the two dermal papilla cell lines. Many of the differentially expressed genes are involved in vascularization, ECM-receptor interaction and Wnt/?-catenin/Lef1 signaling pathways, which intimately associated with hair follicle morphogenesis. These findings provide valuable information for research on postnatal morphogenesis of hair follicles.
Project description:p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) can integrate nutrient and growth factor signals to promote cell growth and survival. We report our molecular characterization of the complementary DNA (cDNA) that encodes the goat p70S6K gene 40S ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) (GenBank accession GU144017) and its 3' noncoding sequence in Inner Mongolia Cashmere goats (Capra hircus). Goat S6K1 cDNA was 2,272 bp and include an open reading frame (ORF) of 1,578 bp, corresponding to a polypeptide of 525 amino acids, and a 694-residue 3' noncoding sequence with a polyadenylation signal at nucleotides 2,218 to 2,223. The relative abundance of S6K1 mRNA was measured by real-time PCR in 6 tissues, and p70S6K expression was examined by immunohistochemistry in heart and testis. The phosphorylation of p70S6K is regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in fetal fibroblasts.
Project description:BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a large family of endogenous, non-coding RNAs, about 22 nucleotides long, which regulate gene expression through sequence-specific base pairing with target mRNAs. Extensive studies have shown that miRNA expression in the skin changes remarkably during distinct stages of the hair cycle in humans, mice, goats and sheep. RESULTS: In this study, the skin tissues were harvested from the three stages of hair follicle cycling (anagen, catagen and telogen) in a fibre-producing goat breed. In total, 63,109,004 raw reads were obtained by Solexa sequencing and 61,125,752 clean reads remained for the small RNA digitalisation analysis. This resulted in the identification of 399 conserved miRNAs; among these, 326 miRNAs were expressed in all three follicular cycling stages, whereas 3, 12 and 11 miRNAs were specifically expressed in anagen, catagen, and telogen, respectively. We also identified 172 potential novel miRNAs by Mireap, 36 miRNAs were expressed in all three cycling stages, whereas 23, 29 and 44 miRNAs were specifically expressed in anagen, catagen, and telogen, respectively. The expression level of five arbitrarily selected miRNAs was analyzed by quantitative PCR, and the results indicated that the expression patterns were consistent with the Solexa sequencing results. Gene Ontology and KEGG pathway analyses indicated that five major biological pathways (Metabolic pathways, Pathways in cancer, MAPK signalling pathway, Endocytosis and Focal adhesion) accounted for 23.08% of target genes among 278 biological functions, indicating that these pathways are likely to play significant roles during hair cycling. CONCLUSIONS: During all hair cycle stages of cashmere goats, a large number of conserved and novel miRNAs were identified through a high-throughput sequencing approach. This study enriches the Capra hircus miRNA databases and provides a comprehensive miRNA transcriptome profile in the skin of goats during the hair follicle cycle.
Project description:Goats (Capra hircus) are an economically important livestock species providing meat and milk across the globe. They are of particular importance in tropical agri-systems contributing to sustainable agriculture, alleviation of poverty, social cohesion, and utilisation of marginal grazing. There are excellent genetic and genomic resources available for goats, including a highly contiguous reference genome (ARS1). However, gene expression information is limited in comparison to other ruminants. To support functional annotation of the genome and comparative transcriptomics, we created a mini-atlas of gene expression for the domestic goat. RNA-Seq analysis of 17 transcriptionally rich tissues and 3 cell-types detected the majority (90%) of predicted protein-coding transcripts and assigned informative gene names to more than 1000 previously unannotated protein-coding genes in the current reference genome for goat (ARS1). Using network-based cluster analysis, we grouped genes according to their expression patterns and assigned those groups of coexpressed genes to specific cell populations or pathways. We describe clusters of genes expressed in the gastro-intestinal tract and provide the expression profiles across tissues of a subset of genes associated with functional traits. Comparative analysis of the goat atlas with the larger sheep gene expression atlas dataset revealed transcriptional similarities between macrophage associated signatures in the sheep and goats sampled in this study. The goat transcriptomic resource complements the large gene expression dataset we have generated for sheep and contributes to the available genomic resources for interpretation of the relationship between genotype and phenotype in small ruminants.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Molecular regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis plays an essential role in the fine tuning of seasonal estrus in Capra hircus. Noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) are emerging as key regulators in sexual development and mammalian reproduction. In order to identify ncRNAs and to assess their expression patterns, along the HPG axis, we sequenced ncRNA libraries from hypothalamus, pituitary and ovary of three goats. RESULTS:Among the medium length noncoding RNAs (mncRNAs) identified, small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and transfer RNAs (tRNAs) were found to be more abundant in ovary and hypothalamus, respectively. The observed GC content was representative for different classes of ncRNAs, allowing the identification of a tRNA-derived RNA fragments (tRFs) subclass, which had a peak distribution around 32-38% GC content in the hypothalamus. Differences observed among organs confirmed the specificity of microRNA (miRNA) profiles for each organ system. CONCLUSIONS:Data on ncRNAs in organs constituting the HPG axis will contribute to understanding their role in the physiological regulation of reproduction in goats.