Project description:Chrysomya megacephala is a saprophagous fly whose larvae can compost manure and yield biomass and bio-fertilizer simultaneously. However, there are concerns for the safety of the composting system, that is risk of diseases spread by way of manure pathogens, residue of harmful metals and emission of greenhouse gases. Microbiota analysis and heavy metal speciation by European Communities Bureau of Reference were evaluated in raw, C. megacephala-composted and natural stacked swine manure to survey pathogenic bacterial changes and mobility of lead and cadmium in manure after C. megacephala feeding; the emission rate of CH4 and N2 O from manure during C. megacephala composting and natural stacking was also measured. C. megacephala composting altered manure microbiota, reduced the risk of pathogenic bacteria and maintained the stability, and microbiota changes might be associated with heavy metal fractions, especially in Pseudomonas and Prevotella. In addition, C. megacephala-composting significantly reduced the emission rate of CH4 and N2 O in comparing with natural stacking situation and the first two days should be the crucial period for CH4 and N2 O emission measurement for manure treatment by C. megacephala. Moreover, OTU26 and Betaproteobacteria were changed after C. megacephala composting which might play a role in emission of CH4 and N2 O, respectively.
Project description:Blow flies are worldwide the most important insects from a forensic point of view. In Thailand, aside from the two most common species, Chrysomya megacephala (F.) and Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Chrysomya chani Kurahashi was also found to be of forensic importance. We present a case of a human female cadaver in its bloated stage of decomposition, discovered at Pachangnoi Subdistrict, northern Thailand. Entomological sampling during the autopsy displayed an assemblage of numerous dipteran larvae. Macroscopic observations showed the coexistence of third instar larvae of the three blow flies C. megacephala, Chrysomya villeneuvi Patton, an unknown blow fly species and one muscid, Hydrotaea sp. The minimum post-mortem interval was estimated to be six days, based on the developmental rate of C. megacephala. The ID of the unknown larva, which is the focus of this report, was revealed later as C. chani by DNA sequencing, using a 1205 bp of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI). The occurrence of C. chani on a human body revealed the need to analyse and describe the morphology of its immature stage, to enable forensic entomologists to identify this fly species in future cases. The morphological examination of the third instar was performed, revealing peculiar characteristics: protuberant tubercles encircling abdominal segments; 9-11 lobes on the anterior spiracle; six prominent pairs of tubercles along the peripheral rim of the eighth abdominal segment; a heavily sclerotized complete peritreme of the posterior spiracles. A key to differentiate the third instar of blow flies of forensic importance in Thailand is provided.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Gut bacteria are closely associated with host. Chrysomya megacephala, as a vector and resource insect, can transmit various pathogenic bacteria and consume manure to produce biofertilizer and larva biomass. However, the gut bacteria composition and abundance of C. megacephala remain unclear. RESULTS:Illumina MiSeq platform was used to compare composition of gut bacterial community in eggs, 1-day-old larvae, 5-day-old larvae, pupae, adult females and males by sequencing with variation in V4 region of 16S ribosomal DNA gene. In total, 928 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained. These OTUs were annotated into 19 phyla, 42 classes, 77 orders, 153 families and 289 genera. More than 0.5% abundance of 32 OTU core genera were found across all life stages. At class level, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacilli, Bacteroidia, Betaproteobacteria, Flavobacteriia and Gammaproteobacteria were the most abundant in C. megacephala. Eight species were identified to have significantly different abundance between 1-d-larvae and 5-day-larvae and took 28.95% of shared species between these two groups. Sex-specific bacterial species were identified that Faecalibacterium prausnitzii was merely present in females, while Rhodococcus fascians was merely present in males. CONCLUSION:Gut bacteria of C. megacephala varied across life stages. The composition and community structure of the bacterial community differed from young larvae to mature larvae, while that were similar in adult females and males. These data will provide an overall view of bacterial community across life stages in C. megacephala with attention on manure associated and pathogenic bacteria.
Project description:Stable reference genes are essential for accurate normalization in gene expression studies with reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). A synanthropic fly, Chrysomya megacephala, is a well known medical vector and forensic indicator. Unfortunately, previous studies did not look at the stability of reference genes used in C. megacephala.In this study, the expression level of Actin, ribosomal protein L8 (Rpl8), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), elongation factor 1α (EF1), α-tubulin (α-TUB), β-tubulin (β-TUB), TATA binding box (TBP), 18S rRNA (18S) and ribosomal protein S7 (Rps7) were evaluated for their stability using online software RefFinder, which combines the normal software of the ΔCt method, BestKeeper, Normfinder, and geNorm. Moreover the number of suitable reference gene pairs was also suggested by Excel-based geNorm. The expression levels of these reference genes were evaluated under different experimental conditions with special perspectives of forensic applications: developmental stages (eggs, first, second and third instar larvae, pupae and adults); food sources of larvae (pork, fish and chicken); feeding larvae with drugs (untreated control, Estazolam and Marvelon); feeding larvae with heavy metals (untreated control, cadmium and zinc); tissues of adults (head, thorax, abdomen, legs and wings). According to RefFinder, EF1 was the most suitable reference gene of developmental stages, food and tissues; 18S and GAPDH were the most suitable reference genes for drugs and heavy metals, respectively, which could be widely used for quantification of target gene expression with qPCR in C. megacephala. Suitable reference gene pairs were also suggested by geNorm.This fundamental but vital work should facilitate the gene studies of related biological processes and deepen the understanding in physiology, toxicology, and especially medical and forensic entomology of C. megacephala.
Project description:Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) is a prevalent and synanthropic blowfly which has two sides, for being a pathogenic vector, an efficient pollinator, a promising resource of proteins, lipids, chitosan, biofuel et al., and an important forensic indicator. Moreover olfactory proteins are crucial component to function in related processes. However, the genomic platform of C. megacephala remains relatively unavailable. Developmental transcriptomes of eggs, larvae from 1st instar to before pupa stage and adults from emergence to egg laying period were built by RNA-sequencing to establish sequence background of C. megacephala with special lights on olfactory proteins.Clean reads in eggs, larvae and adults were annotated into 59486 transcripts. Transcripts were assembled into 22286, 17180, 18934 and 35900 unigenes in eggs, larvae, adults and the combined datasets, respectively. Unigenes were annotated using Nr (NCBI non-redundant protein sequences), Nt (NCBI non-redundant nucleotide sequences), GO (Gene Ontology), PFAM (Protein family), KOG/COG (Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins), Swiss-Prot (A manually annotated and reviewed protein sequence database), and KO (KEGG Orthology). Totally 12196 unigenes were annotated into 51 sub-categories belonging to three main GO categories; 8462 unigenes were classified functionally into 26 categories to KOG classifications; 5160 unigenes were functionally classified into 5 KEGG categories. Moreover, according to RSEM, the number of differentially expressed genes between larvae and eggs, adults and eggs, adults and larvae, and the common differentially expressed genes were 2637, 1804, 2628 and 258, respectively. Among them, 17 odorant-binding proteins (OBPs), 7 chemosensory proteins (CSPs) and 8 ionotropic receptors (IRs) were differently expressed in adults and larvae. Ten were confirmed as significant differentially expressed genes. Furthermore, OBP Cmeg32081-c4 was highly expressed in the female head and Cmeg33593_c0 were up-regulated with the increase of larval age.A comprehensive sequence resource with desirable quality was built by comparative transcriptome of eggs, larvae and adults, enriching the genomic platform of C. megacephala. The identified differentially expressed genes would facilitate the understanding of metamorphosis, development and the fitness to environmental change of C. megacephala. OBP Cmeg32081-c4 and Cmeg33593_c0 might play a crucial role in the interactions between olfactory system and biological processes.
Project description:Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), a prevalent necrophagous blowfly that is easily mass reared, is noted for being a mechanical vector of pathogenic microorganisms, a pollinator of numerous crops, and a resource insect in forensic investigation in the postmortem interval. In the present study, in order to comprehensively understand the physiological and biochemical functions of C. megacephala, we performed RNA-sequencing and digital gene expression (DGE) profiling using Solexa/Illumina sequencing technology.A total of 39,098,662 clean reads were assembled into 27,588 unigenes with a mean length of 768 nt. All unigenes were searched against the Nt database, Nr database, Swiss-Prot, Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) with the BLASTn or BLASTx algorithm (E-value<0.00001) for annotations. In total, 7,081 unigenes and 14,099 unigenes were functionally classified into 25 COG categories and 240 KEGG pathways, respectively. Furthermore, 20,216 unigenes were grouped into 48 sub-categories belonging to 3 main Gene Ontology (GO) categories (ontologies). Using the transcriptome data as references, we analyzed the differential gene expressions between a soybean oil-fed group (SOF) and a lard oil-fed group (LOF), compared to the negative control group (NC), using the DGE approach. We finally obtained 1,566 differentially expressed genes in SOF/NC, and 1,099 genes in LOF/NC. For further analysis, GO and KEGG functional enrichment were performed on all differentially expressed genes, and a group of differentially expressed candidate genes related to lipometabolism were identified.This study provides a global survey of C. megacephala and provides the basis for further research on the functional genomics of this insect.