Project description:Human tuberculosis is a life-threatening infection following the inhalation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, while the closely related bacteria Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium canettii are thought to be transmitted by ingestion. To explore whether M. tuberculosis could also infect individuals by ingestion, male BALBc mice were fed 2 x 106 CFUs of M. tuberculosis Beijing or phosphate-buffered saline as a negative control, over a 28-day experiment. While eight negative control mice remained disease-free, M. tuberculosis was identified in the lymph nodes and lungs of 8/14 mice and in the spleens of 4/14 mice by microscopy, PCR-based detection and culture. Whole-genome sequencing confirmed the identity of the inoculum and the tissue isolates. In these genetically identical mice, the dissemination of M. tuberculosis correlated with the results of the culture detection of four intestinal bacteria. These observations indicate that ingested M. tuberculosis mycobacteria can translocate, notably provoking lymphatic tuberculosis.
Project description:The genome sequencing of H37Rv strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was completed in 1998 followed by the whole genome sequencing of a clinical isolate, CDC1551 in 2002. Since then, the genomic sequences of a number of other strains have become available making it one of the better studied pathogenic bacterial species at the genomic level. However, annotation of its genome remains challenging because of high GC content and dissimilarity to other model prokaryotes. To this end, we carried out an in-depth proteogenomic analysis of the M. tuberculosis H37Rv strain using Fourier transform mass spectrometry with high resolution at both MS and tandem MS levels. In all, we identified 3176 proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis representing ~80% of its total predicted gene count. In addition to protein database search, we carried out a genome database search, which led to identification of ~250 novel peptides. Based on these novel genome search-specific peptides, we discovered 41 novel protein coding genes in the H37Rv genome. Using peptide evidence and alternative gene prediction tools, we also corrected 79 gene models. Finally, mass spectrometric data from N terminus-derived peptides confirmed 727 existing annotations for translational start sites while correcting those for 33 proteins. We report creation of a high confidence set of protein coding regions in Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome obtained by high resolution tandem mass-spectrometry at both precursor and fragment detection steps for the first time. This proteogenomic approach should be generally applicable to other organisms whose genomes have already been sequenced for obtaining a more accurate catalogue of protein-coding genes.
Project description:Paenibacillus polymyxa A18 was isolated from termite gut and was identified as a potential cellulase and hemicellulase producer in our previous study. Considering that members belonging to genus Paenibacillus are mostly free-living in soil, we investigated here the essential genetic features that helped P. polymyxa A18 to survive in gut environment. Genome sequencing and analysis identified 4608 coding sequences along with several elements of horizontal gene transfer, insertion sequences, transposases and integrated phages, which add to its genetic diversity. Many genes coding for carbohydrate-active enzymes, including the enzymes responsible for woody biomass hydrolysis in termite gut, were identified in P. polymyxa A18 genome. Further, a series of proteins conferring resistance to 11 antibiotics and responsible for production of 4 antibiotics were also found to be encoded, indicating selective advantage for growth and colonization in the gut environment. To further identify genomic regions unique to this strain, a BLAST-based comparative analysis with the sequenced genomes of 47 members belonging to genus Paenibacillus was carried out. Unique regions coding for nucleic acid modifying enzymes like CRISPR/Cas and Type I Restriction-Modification enzymes were identified in P. polymyxa A18 genome suggesting the presence of defense mechanism to combat viral infections in the gut. In addition, genes responsible for the formation of biofilms, such as Type IV pili and adhesins, which might be assisting P. polymyxa A18 in colonizing the gut were also identified in its genome. In situ colonization experiment further confirmed the ability of P. polymyxa A18 to colonize the gut of termite.
Project description:In low-income countries of the Horn of Africa, pulmonary infections are usually considered as tuberculosis, which diagnosis relies on clinical data and positive microscopic observation. This strategy allows non-tuberculous mycobacteria to escape detection, facilitating their emergence in populations. A non-tuberculous mycobacterium strain FB-527 was unexpectedly cultured from the sputum of a Djiboutian patient otherwise diagnosed with multi-drug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis. The sequencing of the rpoB and 16S rRNA genes showed that the isolate was identical to strain FI-09026 previously named "Mycobacterium simulans" and reported only once from a Somali patient. Strain FB-527 mimicked Mycobacterium tuberculosis colonies and enzymatic profile using API ZYM strip and was in vitro resistant to rifampicin and isoniazid. Isolation of two MDR mycobacteria complicated the diagnosis and therapeutic management of the patient. We here report on the complete description of strain FB-527 and strain FI-09026 including genome sequencing, finalizing the description of the proposed new species "Mycobacterium simulans".
Project description:We used shell-vial assay with a medium that buffered rifampin to isolate routine culture-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria from cerebrospinal fluid and rifampin-containing intervertebral disc and vertebral corpus of a patient in treatment for Pott's disease and disseminated tuberculosis. Whole-genome sequencing confirmed M. tuberculosis lineage 4 (Euro-American) strain.
Project description:The heterogenous ribonucleoprotein A18 (hnRNP A18) promotes tumor growth by coordinating the translation of selected transcripts associated with proliferation and survival. hnRNP A18 binds to and stabilizes the transcripts of pro-survival genes harboring its RNA signature motif in their 3'UTRs. hnRNP A18 binds to ATR, RPA, TRX, HIF-1? and several protein translation factor mRNAs on polysomes and increases de novo protein translation under cellular stress. Most importantly, down regulation of hnRNP A18 decreases proliferation, invasion and migration in addition to significantly reducing tumor growth in two mouse xenograft models, melanoma and breast cancer. Moreover, tissue microarrays performed on human melanoma, prostate, breast and colon cancer indicate that hnRNP A18 is over expressed in 40 to 60% of these malignant tissue as compared to normal adjacent tissue. Immunohistochemistry data indicate that hnRNP A18 is over expressed in the stroma and hypoxic areas of human tumors. These data thus indicate that hnRNP A18 can promote tumor growth in in vivo models by coordinating the translation of pro-survival transcripts to support the demands of proliferating cells and increase survival under cellular stress. hnRNP A18 therefore represents a new target to selectively inhibit protein translation in tumor cells.
Project description:The genomes of 16 clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were subjected to whole-genome sequencing to identify mutations related to resistance to one or more anti-Mycobacterium drugs. The sequence data will help in understanding the genomic characteristics of M. tuberculosis isolates and their resistance mutations prevalent in South India.
Project description:Novel biomarkers are urgently needed for point of care TB diagnostics. In this study, we investigated the potential of the pilin subunit protein encoded by the mtp gene as a diagnostic biomarker. BLAST analysis of the mtp gene on published genome databases, and amplicon sequencing were performed in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTBC) strains and other organisms. The protein secondary structure of the amino acid sequences of non-tuberculous Mycobacteria that partially aligned with the mtp sequence was analysed with PredictProtein software. The mtp gene and corresponding amino acid sequence of MTBC were 100% homologous with H37Rv, in contrast to the partial alignment of the non-tuberculous Mycobacteria. The mtp gene was present in all 91 clinical isolates of MTBC. Except for 2 strains with point mutations, the sequence was 100% conserved among the clinical strains. The mtp gene could not be amplified in all non-tuberculous Mycobacteria and respiratory organisms. The predicted MTP protein structure of Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium ulcerans and Mycobacterium abscessus differed significantly from that of the M. tuberculosis, which was similar to Mycobacterium marinum. The absence of the mtp gene in non-tuberculous Mycobacteria and other respiratory bacteria suggests that its encoded product, the pilin subunit protein of M. tuberculosis may be a suitable marker for a point of care TB test.
Project description:Tuberculosis remains a leading cause of human mortality. The emergence of strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent, that are resistant to the major frontline antitubercular drugs increases the urgency for the development of new therapeutic agents. Sequencing of the M. tuberculosis genome revealed the existence of 20 cytochrome P450 enzymes, some of which are potential candidates for drug targeting. The recent burst of studies reporting microarray-based gene essentiality and transcriptome analyses under in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo conditions highlight the importance of selected P450 isoforms for M. tuberculosis viability and pathogenicity. Current knowledge of the structural and biochemical properties of the M. tuberculosis P450 enzymes and their putative redox partners is reviewed, with an emphasis on findings related to their physiological function(s) as well as their potential as drug targets.
Project description:Whole-genome sequencing has emerged as a powerful tool to map genetic diversity among Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates and identify the genomic signatures associated with drug resistance, pathogenesis, and disease transmission. Isolate LJ319 of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC)-Beijing genotype circulating in Maharashtra, India, which was obtained from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of an immunocompetent patient, was subjected to whole-genome sequencing.