Project description:The Bacillus sonorensis L12 draft genome sequence is approximately 4,647,754 bp in size with a G+C content of 45.2%. Over 86% of the genome contains protein-encoding genes, including several gene clusters for de novo biosynthesis of the nonribosomal lipopeptides iturin, bacitracin, and fengycin, which could mean that the strain exhibits antifungal effects.
Project description:Seven isolates from spoiled fruits and vegetables were screened for pectinase production using pectin agar plates and the most efficient bacterial strain, MPTD1, was identified as Bacillus sonorensis. Optimisation of various process parameters was done using Plackett-Burman and Box-Behnken designs and it was found that parameters like yeast extract, K2HPO4, incubation time, NaNO3 and KCl have a negative impact on pectinase production. Parameters like pH and MgSO4 and pectin mass fractions have a positive impact on pectinase production. The maximum obtained enzyme activity was 2.43 (?M/mL)/min. This is the first report on pectinase production by Bacillus sonorensis.
Project description:An N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-degrading bacterial strain, L62, was isolated from a sample of fermentation brine of Chinese soya sauce by using rich medium agar supplemented with soya sauce (10% v/v). L62, a rod-shaped Gram positive bacterium with amylolytic activity, was phylogentically related to Bacillus sonorensis by 16S ribosomal DNA and rpoB sequence analyses. B. sonorensis L62 efficiently degraded N-3-oxohexanoyl homoserine lactone and N-octanoylhomoserine lactone. However, the aiiA homologue, encoding an autoinducer inactivation enzyme catalyzing the degradation of AHLs, was not detected in L62, suggesting the presence of a different AHL-degrading gene in L62. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of AHL-degrading B. sonorensis from soya sauce liquid state fermentation.
Project description:Ribosomal protein genes are often controlled by autoregulatory mechanisms in which a protein encoded in the operon can either bind to newly synthesized rRNA during rapid growth or to a similar target in its mRNA during poor growth conditions. The rplJL operon encodes the ribosomal L10(L12)4 complex. In Escherichia coli L10(L12)4 represses its translation by binding to the rplJL leader transcript. We identified three RNA structures in the Bacillus subtilis rplJL leader transcript that function as an anti-antiterminator, antiterminator or intrinsic terminator. Expression studies with transcriptional and translational fusions indicated that L10(L12)4 represses rplJL expression at the transcriptional level. RNA binding studies demonstrated that L10(L12)4 stabilizes the anti-antiterminator structure, while in vitro transcription results indicated that L10(L12)4 promotes termination. Disruption of anti-antiterminator, antiterminator or terminator function by competitor oligonucleotides in vitro and by mutations in vivo demonstrated that each structure functions as predicted. Thus, rplJL expression is regulated by an autogenous transcription attenuation mechanism in which L10(L12)4 binding to the anti-antiterminator structure promotes termination. We also found that translation of a leader peptide increases rplJL expression, presumably by inhibiting Rho-dependent termination. Thus, the rplJL operon of B.?subtilis is regulated by transcription attenuation and antitermination mechanisms.
Project description:Unlike other important vectors such as mosquitoes and sandflies, genetic and genomic tools for Culicoides biting midges are lacking, despite the fact that they vector a large number of arboviruses and other pathogens impacting humans and domestic animals world-wide. In North America, female Culicoides sonorensis midges are important vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), orbiviruses that cause significant disease in livestock and wildlife. Libraries of tissue-specific transcripts expressed in response to feeding and oral orbivirus challenge in C. sonorensis have previously been reported, but extensive genome-wide expression profiling in the midge has not. Here, we successfully used deep sequencing technologies to construct the first adult female C. sonorensis reference transcriptome, and utilized genome-wide expression profiling to elucidate the genetic response to blood and sucrose feeding over time. The adult female midge unigene consists of 19,041 genes, of which less than 7% are differentially expressed during the course of a sucrose meal, while up to 52% of the genes respond significantly in blood-fed midges, indicating hematophagy induces complex physiological processes. Many genes that were differentially expressed during blood feeding were associated with digestion (e.g. proteases, lipases), hematophagy (e.g., salivary proteins), and vitellogenesis, revealing many major metabolic and biological factors underlying these critical processes. Additionally, key genes in the vitellogenesis pathway were identified, which provides the first glimpse into the molecular basis of anautogeny for C. sonorensis. This is the first extensive transcriptome for this genus, which will serve as a framework for future expression studies, RNAi, and provide a rich dataset contributing to the ultimate goal of informing a reference genome assembly and annotation. Moreover, this study will serve as a foundation for subsequent studies of genome-wide expression analyses during early orbivirus infection and dissecting the molecular mechanisms behind vector competence in midges.
Project description:Biting midges in the genus Culicoides are important vectors of arboviral diseases, including epizootic haemorrhagic disease, bluetongue and most likely Schmallenberg, which cause significant economic burdens worldwide. Research on these vectors has been hindered by the lack of a sequenced genome, the difficulty of consistent culturing of certain species and the absence of molecular techniques such as RNA interference (RNAi). Here, we report the establishment of RNAi as a research tool for the adult midge, Culicoides sonorensis. Based on previous research and transcriptome analysis, which revealed putative small interfering RNA pathway member orthologues, we hypothesized that adult C.?sonorensis midges have the molecular machinery needed to perform RNA silencing. Injection of control double-stranded RNA targeting green fluorescent protein (dsGFP), into the haemocoel of 2-3-day-old adult female midges resulted in survival curves that support virus transmission. dsRNA injection targeting the newly identified C.?sonorensis inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (CsIAP1) orthologue resulted in a 40% decrease of transcript levels and 73% shorter median survivals as compared with dsGFP-injected controls. These results reveal the conserved function of IAP1. Importantly, they also demonstrate the feasibility of RNAi by dsRNA injection in adult midges, which will greatly facilitate studies of the underlying mechanisms of vector competence in C.?sonorensis.
Project description:Marine environments are the greatest fronts of biodiversity, representing a resource of unexploited or unknown microorganisms and new substances having potential applications. Among microbial products, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have received great attention recently due to their applications as food preservatives and therapeutic agents. A new marine soil isolate producing an AMP was identified as Bacillus sonorensis based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. It produced an AMP that showed a broad spectrum of activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The peptide, named sonorensin, was purified to homogeneity using a combination of chromatographic techniques. The intact molecular mass of the purified peptide, 6,274 Da, as revealed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF), was in agreement with Tricine-SDS-PAGE analysis. A PCR array of primers was used to identify AMP structural genes, which allowed the successful amplification of the related genes from strain MT93. The putative open reading frame of sonorensin was amplified, cloned into the pET-32a(+) vector, expressed as a thioredoxin (Trx) fusion protein in Escherichia coli, and then purified. Sequence alignment analysis revealed that the bacteriocin being reported could belong to new subfamily of bacteriocins, heterocycloanthracin. The peptide indicated its potential as a biocontrol agent or food antimicrobial agent, due to its antimicrobial activity against bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. This is the first report of the production, purification, and characterization of wild-type and recombinant bacteriocin by B. sonorensis and the first bacteriocin of the heterocycloanthracin subfamily to be characterized.