Project description:In a survey of undiscovered taxa in Korea, three zygomycete fungal strains-EML-W31, EML-HGD1-1, and EML-RUS1-1-were isolated from freshwater, grasshopper fecal, and soil samples in Korea. On the basis of the morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer and 28S rDNA, the isolates of EML-W31, EML-HGD1-1, and EML-RUS1-1 were confirmed to be Cunninghamella bertholletiae, Cunninghamella echinulata, and Cunninghamella elegans, respectively. These species have not been previously described in Korea.
Project description:Synthetic cannabinoids JWH-018, JWH-073 and AM2201 were metabolised by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans. In this article, data on individual metabolites of their retention times, mass accuracies, major product ions and structures indicated by product ions are presented. The data in this article is related to "Biotransformation of synthetic cannabinoids JWH-018, JWH-073 and AM2201 by Cunninghamella elegans" .
Project description:The fungus Cunninghamella elegans is recognised as a microbial model of mammalian drug metabolism owing to its ability to catabolise xenobiotic compounds in an analogous fashion to animals. Its ability to produce phase I (oxidative) metabolites of drugs is associated with cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity; however, almost nothing is known about these enzymes in the fungus. In this paper we report the in silico analysis of the genome sequence of C. elegans B9769, which contains 32 genes putatively coding for CYPs. Based on their predicted amino acid sequences these were classified as belonging to CYP509, 5203, 5208, 5313, 5210, 61 and 51 families. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR revealed that the gene coding for CYP5313D1 was significantly upregulated when C. elegans DSM1908 was cultivated in sabouraud dextrose in contrast to its expression in cells grown in Roswell Park Memorial Institute medium. This corresponded to the fungus' xenobiotic biotransformation ability when grown in the two media. Heterologous expression of cyp5313D1 in Pichia pastoris resulted in a recombinant strain that biotransformed flurbiprofen to 4'-hydroxyflurbiprofen, the same metabolite generated by C. elegans cultures. This is the first report of a xenobiotic-biotransforming CYP from this biotechnologically important fungus.
Project description:Cell extracts of the filamentous fungus Cunninghamella elegans contain epoxide hydrolase (EC 18.104.22.168), glutathione S-transferase (EC 22.214.171.124) and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (EC 126.96.36.199) activities. Epoxide hydrolase activity was determined with p-nitrostyrene oxide as substrate and was shown to be associated with the 100 000 g pellet obtained from disrupted mycelia. Glutathione S-transferase activity was demonstrated with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene and p-nitrobenzyl chloride as substrates. The presence of two or more glutathione S-transferase activities was indicated by different activity ratios for the two substrates in different extracts, and by distinct thermal denaturation curves. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity with 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene as substrate was found only with the non-sedimentable fraction prepared from ruptured mycelia.
Project description:Metabolism of 4-methylbenz[a]anthracene by the fungus Cunninghamella elegans was studied. C. elegans metabolized 4-methylbenz[a]anthracene primarily at the methyl group, this being followed by further metabolism at the 8,9- and 10,11-positions to form trans-8,9-dihydro-8,9-dihydroxy-4-hydroxymethylbenz[a]anthracene and trans-10,11-dihydro-10,11-dihydroxy-4-hydroxymethylbenz[a]anthracene. There was no detectable trans-dihydrodiol formed at the methyl-substituted double bond (3,4-positions) or at the 'K' region (5,6-positions). The metabolites were isolated by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography and characterized by the application of u.v.-visible-absorption-, 1H-n.m.r.- and mass-spectral techniques. The 4-hydroxymethylbenz[a]anthracene trans-8,9- and -10,11-dihydrodiols were optically active. Comparison of the c.d. spectra of the trans-dihydrodiols formed from 4-methylbenz[a]anthracene by C. elegans with those of the corresponding benz[a]anthracene trans-dihydrodiols formed by rat liver microsomal fraction indicated that the major enantiomers of the 4-hydroxymethylbenz[a]anthracene trans-8,9-dihydrodiol and trans- 10,11-dihydrodiol formed by C. elegans have S,S absolute stereochemistries, which are opposite to those of the predominantly 8R,9R- and 10R,11R-dihydrodiols formed by the microsomal fraction. Incubation of C. elegans with 4-methylbenz[a]anthracene under 18O2 and subsequent mass-spectral analysis of the metabolites indicated that hydroxylation of the methyl group and the formation of trans-dihydrodiols are catalysed by cytochrome P-450 mono-oxygenase and epoxide hydrolase enzyme systems. The results indicate that the fungal mono-oxygenase-epoxide hydrolase enzyme systems are highly stereo- and regio-selective in the metabolism of 4-methylbenz[a]anthracene.
Project description:The structural gene for glutathione S-transferase (CeGST1-1) in the fungus Cunninghamella elegans was cloned by screening a cDNA library using a degenerate oligonucleotide probe based on the N-terminal sequence of the purified protein. Open reading frame analysis indicated that the cegst1 gene encodes a protein of 210 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 25% sequence identity with the sequence of the Pi-class GST from Danio rerio (zebrafish). Similarity was also shown with the Alpha-class GST from Fasciola hepatica (liver fluke; 23% identity), the Mu class from Mus musculus (22%) and the Sigma class from Ommastrephes sloani (squid; 21%). Further screening of a cDNA library with the cegst1 gene probe revealed the presence of another GST isoenzyme (CeGST2-2) in this fungus, which shows 84% sequence identity with CeGST1-1 at the amino acid level. Reverse transcription PCR revealed that cegst2 was also expressed at the mRNA level in the fungus C. elegans. Both cegst genes were overexpressed in Escherichia coli using the expression vector pQE51, displaying specific activities with 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene of 2.04 and 0.75 micromol/min per mg of protein respectively. Both enzymes exhibited a similar substrate specificity and inhibition profile, indicating that CeGST1-1 and CeGST2-2 belong to the same GST class. Mutagenesis analysis revealed that Tyr(10) in the N-terminal region is essential for catalysis of CeGST1-1. We propose from these results that the CeGSTs are novel Gamma-class GSTs and designated as GSTG1-1 and GSTG2-2 respectively.
Project description:Copaifera lucens n-butanolic fraction (BF) was used as a source of galloylquinic acids, and aerobically incubated with Aspergillus alliaceus ATCC10060, Aspergillus brasiliensis ATCC 16404, and Cunninghamella elegans ATCC 10028b cultures for 60 and 120 h. Out of the three studied filamentous fungi, A. alliaceus ATCC10060 was able to degrade galloylquinic acids into one major metabolite, 3-O-methylgallic acid (M1). The product was identified by 1H-NMR, UPLC-MS/MS and its potential effect on calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystal binding to Madin-Darby canine kidney cells type I surface was studied. Renal cells pretreatment with BF and M1 for 3 h significantly decreased calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal-adherence at 50 ?g/mL and 5 ?M, respectively. Both M1 and BF significantly reduced surface expression of COM-binding proteins annexin A1 and heat shock protein 90, respectively as evidenced by Western blot analysis of membrane, cytosolic, and whole cell lysate fractions. The compounds also showed antioxidant activities in DPPH assay.