Project description:Transcripitonal profiling of Escherichia coli K-12 BW25113 comparing cells with isooctane treatment at time point of 0, 10, 30 and 60 min with two biological replicates One-condition experiment, cells with isooctane treatment at incubation time of 0, 10, 30 and 60 min, respectively
Project description:To cope with fluctuations in their environment, bacteria have evolved multiple adaptive stress responses. One such response is the nitrogen regulation stress response, which allows bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, to cope with and overcome conditions of nitrogen limitation. This response is directed by the two-component system NtrBC, where NtrC acts as the major transcriptional regulator to activate the expression of genes to mount the response. Recently, my colleagues and I showed that NtrC directly regulates the expression of the relA gene, the major (p)ppGpp synthetase in E. coli, coupling the nitrogen regulation stress and stringent responses. As elevated levels of (p)ppGpp have been implicated in the formation of persister cells, here, I investigated whether nitrogen starvation promotes their formation and whether the NtrC-RelA regulatory cascade plays a role. The results reveal that nitrogen-starved E. coli synthesizes (p)ppGpp and forms a higher percentage of persister cells than nonstarved cells and that both NtrC and RelA are important for these processes. This study provides novel insights into how the formation of persisters can be promoted in response to a nutritional stress.IMPORTANCE Bacteria often reside in environments where nutrient availability is scarce; therefore, they have evolved adaptive responses to rapidly cope with conditions of feast and famine. Understanding the mechanisms that underpin the regulation of how bacteria cope with this stress is a fundamentally important question in the wider context of understanding the biology of the bacterial cell and bacterial pathogenesis. Two major adaptive mechanisms to cope with starvation are the nitrogen regulation (ntr) stress and stringent responses. Here, I describe how these bacterial stress responses are coordinated under conditions of nitrogen starvation to promote the formation of antibiotic-tolerant persister cells by elevating levels of the secondary messenger (p)ppGpp.
Project description:Persister cells are difficult to eliminate because they are tolerant to antibiotic stress. In the present study, using artificially induced Escherichia coli persister cells, we found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) have greater effects on persister cells than on exponential cells. Thus, we examined which types of ROS could effectively eliminate persister cells and determined the mechanisms underlying the effects of these ROS. Ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation can kill persister cells, and bacterial viability is markedly increased under UV shielding. UV induces the production of ROS, which kill bacteria by moving toward the shielded area. Electron spin resonance-based analysis confirmed that hydroxyl radicals are produced by UV irradiation, although singlet oxygen is not produced. These results clearly revealed that ROS sterilizes persister cells more effectively compared to the sterilization of exponential cells (** p < 0.01). These ROS do not injure the bacterial cell wall but rather invade the cell, followed by cell killing. Additionally, the sterilization effect on persister cells was increased by exposure to oxygen plasma during UV irradiation. However, vapor conditions decreased persister cell sterilization by reducing the levels of hydroxyl radicals. We also verified the effect of ROS against bacteria in biofilms that are more resistant than planktonic cells. Although UV alone could not completely sterilize the biofilm bacteria, UV with ROS achieved complete sterilization. Our results demonstrate that persister cells strongly resist the effects of antibiotics and starvation stress but are less able to withstand exposure to ROS. It was shown that ROS does not affect the cell membrane but penetrates it and acts internally to kill persister cells. In particular, it was clarified that the hydroxy radical is an effective sterilizer to kill persister cells.
Project description:Transcription profile of sorted Escherichia coli cells was compared to that of non-sorted cells to evaluate the effect of sorting process on transcriptome of E. coli. E. coli cells were harvest from planktonic cultures in annular reactor and stored in RNAlater. Sorting includes 2-min homogenization with OMNI TH homogenizer on ice for E. coli cells pre-stored in RNAlater and then resuspended in nuclease free phosphate buffered saline for sorting with one-step immuno-magnetic separation with anti-E. coli antibody and microbeads on a MACS separator (Miltenyi, Auburn, CA). Overall design: Two condition experiments: sorted vs non-sorted. Two biological replicates with individually grown and harvested E. coli cells. Each biological replicate has two technical replicates of labeling and hybridization on microarray slides. Each slide has three built-in replicates for each probe.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Persisters are rare phenotypic variants within a bacterial population that are capable of tolerating lethal antibiotic concentrations. Passage through stationary phase is associated with the formation of persisters (type I), and a major physiological response of Escherichia coli during stationary phase is cell wall restructuring. Given the concurrence of these processes, we sought to assess whether perturbation to cell wall synthesis during stationary phase impacts type I persister formation. RESULTS:We tested a panel of cell wall inhibitors and found that piperacillin, which primarily targets penicillin binding protein 3 (PBP3 encoded by ftsI), resulted in a significant reduction in both β-lactam (ampicillin, carbenicillin) and fluoroquinolone (ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin) persister levels. Further analyses showed that piperacillin exposure through stationary phase resulted in cells with more ATP, DNA, RNA, and protein (including PBPs) than untreated controls; and that their physiology led to more rapid resumption of DNA gyrase supercoiling activity, translation, and cell division upon introduction into fresh media. Previously, PBP3 inhibition had been linked to antibiotic efficacy through the DpiBA two component system; however, piperacillin suppressed persister formation in ΔdpiA to the same extent as it did in wild-type, suggesting that DpiBA is not required for the phenomenon reported here. To test the generality of PBP3 inhibition on persister formation, we expressed FtsI Ser307Ala to genetically inhibit PBP3, and suppression of persister formation was also observed, although not to the same magnitude as that seen for piperacillin treatment. CONCLUSIONS:From these data we conclude that stationary phase PBP3 activity is important to type I persister formation in E. coli.
Project description:Persisters represent a small bacterial population that is dormant and that survives under antibiotic treatment without experiencing genetic adaptation. Persisters are also considered one of the major reasons for recalcitrant chronic bacterial infections. Although several mechanisms of persister formation have been proposed, it is not clear how cells enter the dormant state in the presence of antibiotics or how persister cell formation can be effectively controlled. A fatty acid compound, cis-2-decenoic acid, was reported to decrease persister formation as well as revert the dormant cells to a metabolically active state. We reasoned that some fatty acid compounds may be effective in controlling bacterial persistence because they are known to benefit host immune systems. This study investigated persister cell formation by pathogens that were exposed to nine fatty acid compounds during antibiotic treatment. We found that three medium chain unsaturated fatty acid ethyl esters (ethyl trans-2-decenoate, ethyl trans-2-octenoate, and ethyl cis-4-decenoate) decreased the level of Escherichia coli persister formation up to 110-fold when cells were exposed to ciprofloxacin or ampicillin antibiotics. RNA sequencing analysis and gene deletion persister studies elucidated that these fatty acids inhibit bacterial persistence by regulating antitoxin HipB. A similar persister cell reduction was observed for pathogenic E. coli EDL933, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, and Serratia marcescens ICU2-4 strains. This study demonstrates that fatty acid ethyl esters can be used to disrupt bacterial dormancy to combat persistent infectious diseases. Overall design: Exponential phase E. coli BW25113 was exposed to 1 µg/mL of ciprofloxacin with and without 500 µM of ethyl trans-2-decenoate (ET2DA) for 1 h. Total RNA was isolated and rRNA was depleted. After generating RNA library, RNA was sequenced using Illumina NextSeq 500.
Project description:Chronic and recurrent infections have been attributed to persisters in biofilms, and despite this importance, the mechanisms of persister formation in biofilms remain unclear. The plethora of biofilm characteristics that could give rise to persisters, including slower growth, quorum signaling, oxidative stress, and nutrient heterogeneity, have complicated efforts to delineate formation pathways that generate persisters during biofilm development. Here we sought to specifically determine whether nutrient transitions, which are a common metabolic stress encountered within surface-attached communities, stimulate persister formation in biofilms and if so, to then identify the pathway. To accomplish this, we established an experimental methodology where nutrient availability to biofilm cells could be controlled exogenously, and then used that method to discover that diauxic carbon source transitions stimulated persister formation in Escherichia coli biofilms. Previously, we found that carbon source transitions stimulate persister formation in planktonic E. coli cultures, through a pathway that involved ppGpp and nucleoid-associated proteins, and therefore, tested the functionality of that pathway in biofilms. Biofilm persister formation was also found to be dependent on ppGpp and nucleoid-associated proteins, but the importance of specific proteins and enzymes between biofilm and planktonic lifestyles was significantly different. Data presented here support the increasingly appreciated role of ppGpp as a central mediator of bacterial persistence and demonstrate that nutrient transitions can be a source of persisters in biofilms.
Project description:When bacteria are challenged with antimicrobials, small numbers of cells may survive treatment. These so-called persister cells are not mutants, but are a set of phenotypic variants which, after re-growth exhibit the same susceptibility properties as their progenitor populations. The presence of persisters may determine the effective therapeutic dose of antibiotics and account for the intractability of biofilm-related infections. In the current investigation, Escherichia coli persister cells were isolated without prior exposure to antimicrobials, using fluorescence-assisted cell sorting of a strain, labelled with a chromosomal green fluorescent protein marker. Levels of persistence were inversely proportional to fluorescence intensity in the gfp-tagged E. coli population, and separated persister cells showed enhanced expression of two groups of genes located in the e14 and CP4-6 cryptic prophage regions when analysed by DNA microarray.
Project description:Persisters are rare phenotypic variants of regular bacterial cells that survive lethal antibiotics or stresses owing to slowing down of their metabolism. Recently, we have shown that polyamine putrescine can upregulate persister cell formation in Escherichia coli via the stimulation of rpoS expression, encoding a master regulator of general stress response. We hypothesized that rmf and yqjD, the stationary-phase genes responsible for ribosome inactivation, might be good candidates for the similar role owing to their involvement in translational arrest and the ability to be affected by polyamines. Using reporter gene fusions or single and multiple knockout mutations in rpoS, rmf and yqjD genes, we show in this work that (i) E. coli polyamines spermidine and cadaverine can upregulate persistence, like putrescine; (ii) polyamine effects on persister cell formation are mediated through stimulation of expression of rpoS, rmf and yqjD genes; (iii) these genes are involved in persister cell formation sequentially in a dynamic fashion as cells enter the stationary phase. The data obtained in this work can be used to develop novel tools relying on a suppression of polyamine metabolism in bacteria to combat persister cells as an important cause of infections refractory to antibiotics.