Project description:The present study was aimed to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Castanospermum australe and to profile phytochemicals by GC-MS. The ethanolic extracts were prepared by successive solvent extraction using Soxhlet apparatus. The analgesic activity was analyzed by hot plate method and acetic acid-induced writhing test whereas anti-inflammatory study was done by carrageenan induced paw oedema model. The acute toxicity study revealed that ethanol extracts of leaf and bark of C. australe were safe even at a higher dose of 2000 mg/kg whereas ethanol extract of seed was toxic at the same dose. In both hot plate method (5.85 s) and acetic acid-induced writhing test (57%), the leaf ethanol extract exhibited significant analgesic activity (P < 0.001) at a dose of 400 mg/kg. The anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extract was exhibited by the reduction in paw linear diameter by 64.76% at 400 mg/kg in carrageenan induced paw oedema. The GC-MS analysis of the ethanol extract of leaf revealed sixteen major compounds of which 1,7-dimethyl-4,10-dioxa-1,7-diazacyclododecane, (+)-N-methylephedrine, and permethylspermine were found to be pharmaceutically and the most important. These findings justify that C. australe can be a valuable natural analgesic and anti-inflammatory source which seemed to provide potential phytotherapeutics against various ailments.
Project description:Seeds of the legume Castanospermum australe are shed at relatively high moisture contents, and to do not acquire desiccation tolerance during their seed development, they are referred to as 'recalcitrant'. To characterize the regulatory pathways and molecular mechnanisms are occur during seed development and to allow for a comparative analysis with seed development of desiccation-tolerant species, cotyledon and embryonic axes were harvested at different stages of development, arbitrarily defined in terms of seed weight (grams) and color. Transcriptomes of 6 stages were analysed using Nimblegen slides: 2.5g - 4.5g - 7.5g - yellow-green (YG) - green (G) - brown (B) for cotyledons (C) and YG, G and B for emrbyonic axes (A) Overall design: Six-condition experiment, 2.5C/4.5C - 7.5C/YGC - GC/BC - YGC/BC - GA/BA - YGA/BA. Two replicates from each developmental stage were used for dye switch, each time the control was considered as the earlier developmental stage vs the treatment, corresponding to the later developmental stage. A total of four replicates were analysed.
Project description:We previously reported the development of a set of Gossypium hirsutum-G. australe alien chromosome addition lines. Naturally, however, G. hirsutum-G. australe chromosome exchanges were very limited, impeding the stable transference of useful genes from G. australe (G2G2 genome) into the most cultivated cotton, G. hirsutum (AADD).In the present report, the pollen from a pentaploid (2n?=?AADDG2) of G. hirsutum-G. australe was irradiated with seven different doses ranging from 10 to 40 Grays and used to pollinate emasculated flowers of G. hirsutum over three consecutive years. Irradiation greatly increased the genetic recombination rates of the G. hirsutum and G. australe chromosomes and a total of 107 chromosome introgression individuals in 192 GISH-negative (with no GISH signal on chromosome) survived individuals, 11 chromosome translocation individuals (containing 12 chromosome translocation events) and 67 chromosome addition individuals were obtained in 70 GISH-positive (with GISH signal(s) on chromosome(s)) survived individuals, which are invaluable for mining desirable genes from G. australe. Multicolor genomic in situ hybridization results showed that there were three types of translocation, whole arm translocation, large alien segment translocation and small alien segment translocation, and that all translocations occurred between the G2-genome and the A-subgenome chromosomes in G. hirsutum. We also found that higher doses induced much higher rates of chromosome variation but also greatly lowered the seed viability and seedling survivability.Irradiation has been successfully employed to induce chromosome introgressions and chromosome translocations and promote chromosome exchanges between cultivated and wild species. In addition, by balancing the rates of chromosome introgression and translocation to those of seed set, seed germination, and seedling rates in the M1 generation, we conclude that the dosage of 20 Grays is the most suitable. The established methodology may guide the utilization of the tertiary gene pool of Gossypium species such as G. australe in cotton breeding in the future.
Project description:We report the first complete set of alien addition lines of G. hirsutum . The characterized lines can be used to introduce valuable traits from G. australe into cultivated cotton. Gossypium australe is a diploid wild cotton species (2n = 26, GG) native to Australia that possesses valuable characteristics unavailable in the cultivated cotton gene pool, such as delayed pigment gland morphogenesis in the seed and resistances to pests and diseases. However, it is very difficult to directly transfer favorable traits into cultivated cotton through conventional gene recombination due to the absence of pairing and crossover between chromosomes of G. australe and Gossypium hirsutum (2n = 52, AADD). To enhance the transfer of favorable genes from wild species into cultivated cotton, we developed a set of hirsutum-australe monosomic alien chromosome addition lines (MAAL) using a combination of morphological survey, microsatellite marker-assisted selection, and molecular cytogenetic analysis. The amphidiploid (2n = 78, AADDGG) of G. australe and G. hirsutum was consecutively backcrossed with upland cotton to develop alien addition lines of individual G. australe chromosomes in G. hirsutum. From these backcross progeny, we generated the first complete set of chromosome addition lines in cotton; 11 of 13 lines are monosomic additions, and chromosomes 7G(a) and 13G(a) are multiple additions. MAALs of 1G(a) and 11G(a) were the first to be isolated. The chromosome addition lines can be employed as bridges for the transfer of desired genes from G. australe into G. hirsutum, as well as for gene assignment, isolation of chromosome-specific probes, flow sorting and microdissection of chromosome, development of chromosome-specific ''paints'' for fluorochrome-labeled DNA fragments, physical mapping, and selective isolation and mapping of cDNAs for a particular G. australe chromosome.
Project description:The diploid wild cotton species Gossypium australe possesses excellent traits including resistance to disease and delayed gland morphogenesis, and has been successfully used for distant breeding programmes to incorporate disease resistance traits into domesticated cotton. Here, we sequenced the G. australe genome by integrating PacBio, Illumina short read, BioNano (DLS) and Hi-C technologies, and acquired a high-quality reference genome with a contig N50 of 1.83 Mb and a scaffold N50 of 143.60 Mb. We found that 73.5% of the G. australe genome is composed of various repeat sequences, differing from those of G. arboreum (85.39%), G. hirsutum (69.86%) and G. barbadense (69.83%). The G. australe genome showed closer collinear relationships with the genome of G. arboreum than G. raimondii and has undergone less extensive genome reorganization than the G. arboreum genome. Selection signature and transcriptomics analyses implicated multiple genes in disease resistance responses, including GauCCD7 and GauCBP1, and experiments revealed induction of both genes by Verticillium dahliae and by the plant hormones strigolactone (GR24), salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA). Experiments using a Verticillium-resistant domesticated G. barbadense cultivar confirmed that knockdown of the homologues of these genes caused a significant reduction in resistance against Verticillium dahliae. Moreover, knockdown of a newly identified gland-associated gene GauGRAS1 caused a glandless phenotype in partial tissues using G. australe. The G. australe genome represents a valuable resource for cotton research and distant relative breeding as well as for understanding the evolutionary history of crop genomes.
Project description:In contrast to orthodox seeds that acquire desiccation tolerance during maturation, recalcitrant seeds are unable to survive drying. These desiccation-sensitive seeds constitute an interesting model for comparative analysis with phylogenetically close species that are desiccation tolerant. Considering the importance of LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) proteins as protective molecules both in drought and in desiccation tolerance, the heat-stable proteome was characterized in cotyledons of the legume Castanospermum australe and it was compared with that of the orthodox model legume Medicago truncatula. RNA sequencing identified transcripts of 16 homologues out of 17 LEA genes for which polypeptides are detected in M. truncatula seeds. It is shown that for 12 LEA genes, polypeptides were either absent or strongly reduced in C. australe cotyledons compared with M. truncatula seeds. Instead, osmotically responsive, non-seed-specific dehydrins accumulated to high levels in the recalcitrant cotyledons compared with orthodox seeds. Next, M. truncatula mutants of the abscisic acid insensitive3 (ABI3) gene were characterized. Mature Mtabi3 seeds were found to be desiccation sensitive when dried below a critical water content of 0.4 g H2O g DW(-1). Characterization of the LEA proteome of the Mtabi3 seeds revealed a subset of LEA proteins with severely reduced abundance that were also found to be reduced or absent in C. australe cotyledons. Transcripts of these genes were indeed shown to be ABI3 responsive. The results highlight those LEA proteins that are critical to desiccation tolerance and suggest that comparable regulatory pathways responsible for their accumulation are missing in both desiccation-sensitive genotypes, revealing new insights into the mechanistic basis of the recalcitrant trait in seeds.