Project description:Leuconostoc fallax is known to be present during the manufacturing process of kimchi, the best-known traditional Korean dish. Here, we present the draft genome sequence of the type strain Leuconostoc fallax KCTC 3537 (1,638,971 bp, with a G+C content of 37.5%), which consists of 30 large contigs (>100 bp in size).
Project description:Sphagnum mosses dominate peatlands by employing harsh ecosystem tactics to prevent vascular plant growth and microbial degradation of these large carbon stores. Knowledge about Sphagnum-produced metabolites, their structure and their function, is important to better understand the mechanisms, underlying this carbon sequestration phenomenon in the face of climate variability. It is currently unclear which compounds are responsible for inhibition of organic matter decomposition and the mechanisms by which this inhibition occurs. Metabolite profiling of Sphagnum fallax was performed using two types of mass spectrometry (MS) systems and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR). Lipidome profiling was performed using LC-MS/MS. A total of 655 metabolites, including one hundred fifty-two lipids, were detected by NMR and LC-MS/MS-329 of which were novel metabolites (31 unknown lipids). Sphagum fallax metabolite profile was composed mainly of acid-like and flavonoid glycoside compounds, that could be acting as potent antimicrobial compounds, allowing Sphagnum to control its environment. Sphagnum fallax metabolite composition comparison against previously known antimicrobial plant metabolites confirmed this trend, with seventeen antimicrobial compounds discovered to be present in Sphagnum fallax, the majority of which were acids and glycosides. Biological activity of these compounds needs to be further tested to confirm antimicrobial qualities. Three fungal metabolites were identified providing insights into fungal colonization that may benefit Sphagnum. Characterizing the metabolite profile of Sphagnum fallax provided a baseline to understand the mechanisms in which Sphagnum fallax acts on its environment, its relation to carbon sequestration in peatlands, and provide key biomarkers to predict peatland C store changes (sequestration, emissions) as climate shifts.
Project description:Lactic acid bacterial strains were isolated from brines sampled after 7 days of an industrial sauerkraut fermentation, and six strains were selected on the basis of susceptibility to bacteriophages. Bacterial growth in cabbage juice was monitored, and the fermentation end products were identified, quantified, and compared to those of Leuconostoc mesenteroides. Identification by biochemical fingerprinting, endonuclease digestion of the 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer region, and sequencing of variable regions V1 and V2 of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the six selected sauerkraut isolates were Leuconostoc fallax strains. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA fingerprints indicated that the strains were distinct from one another. The growth and fermentation patterns of the L. fallax isolates were highly similar to those of L. mesenteroides. The final pH of cabbage juice fermentation was 3.6, and the main fermentation end products were lactic acid, acetic acid, and mannitol for both species. However, none of the L. fallax strains exhibited the malolactic reaction, which is characteristic of most L. mesenteroides strains. These results indicated that in addition to L. mesenteroides, a variety of L. fallax strains may be present in the heterofermentative stage of sauerkraut fermentation. The microbial ecology of sauerkraut fermentation appears to be more complex than previously indicated, and the prevalence and roles of L. fallax require further investigation.
Project description:Hybridization dynamics between co-occurring species in environments where human-mediated changes take place are important to quantify for furthering our understanding of human impacts on species evolution and for informing management. The allis shad Alosa alosa (Linnaeus, 1758) and twaite shad Alosa fallax (Lacépède, 1803), two clupeids sister species, have been severely impacted by human activities across Europe. The shrinkage of A. alosa distribution range along with the decline of the remaining populations' abundance threatens its persistence. The main objective was to evaluate the extent of hybridization and introgression between those interacting species. We developed a set of 77 species-specific SNP loci that allowed a better resolution than morphological traits as they enabled the detection of hybrids up to the third generation. Variable rates of contemporary hybridization and introgression patterns were detected in 12 studied sites across the French Atlantic coast. Mitochondrial markers revealed a cyto-nuclear discordance almost invariably involving A. alosa individuals with an A. fallax mitochondrial DNA and provided evidence of historical asymmetric introgression. Overall, contemporary and historical introgression revealed by nuclear and mitochondrial markers strongly suggests that a transfer of genes occurs from A. fallax toward A. alosa genome since at least four generations. Moreover, the outcomes of introgression greatly depend on the catchments where local processes are thought to occur. Undoubtedly, interspecific interaction and gene flow should not be overlooked when considering the management of those species.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Comparative broad-scale phylogeographic studies of aquatic organisms provide insights on biotic responses to the paleohydrological dynamics associated with climatic oscillations. These insights can be used to formulate a framework for understanding the evolutionary history of a species or closely related taxa as well as aid in predictive modeling of further responses to climate change. Anadromous fishes constitute interesting models for understanding the relative importance of environmental versus biological factors in shaping intraspecific genetic substructure on the interface between marine and freshwater realms. European shads, Alosa alosa and A. fallax are anadromous species that have persisted through historical large-scale environmental perturbations and now additionally face an array of anthropogenic challenges. A comprehensive phylogeographic investigation of these species is needed to provide insights on both the historical processes that have shaped their extant genetic structure and diversity, and the prospects for their future management and conservation. RESULTS:Despite introgressive hybridization, A. alosa and A. fallax are genetically divergent, congruent with previous studies. Three similarly divergent mtDNA clades were recognized within both A. fallax and A. alosa, most likely originating during common periods of isolation during the Pleistocene among the studied oceanographic regions. Periods of basin isolation apparently extended to the Black Sea as additional Alosa clades occur there. The present day geographic distribution of genetic diversity within European Alosa sp. suggests the existence of a strong but permeable barrier between the Atlantic and Mediterranean seas, as shown for a number of other aquatic species. Overall mtDNA diversity is considerably lower for A. alosa compared to A. fallax, suggesting that the former species is more sensitive to climatic as well as anthropogenic changes. For A. fallax, migration from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic was detected but not in the opposite direction, with colonization of the North Atlantic probably occurring after last glacial maximum. CONCLUSION:The similar haplotype network topologies between the two species support a common intraspecific history of isolation. Despite these similarities, A. alosa and A. fallax have clearly responded differently to the hydrological dynamics of the Pleistocene, as reflected in their distinct demographic histories. As the species additionally occupy different ecological niches it should not be surprising that they differ in resilience to natural or human-mediated climatic changes. For A. fallax, it is further clear that its demographic response to large-scale hydrological events is not synchronized between the Atlantic and Mediterranean basins. These regional and species-specific differences should be incorporated into future predictive modeling of biological response to climate change as well as current management concepts.
Project description:Peatlands are one of the most important ecosystems due to their biodiversity and abundant organic compounds; therefore, it is important to observe how different plant species in peatlands react to changing environmental conditions. Sphagnum spp. are the main component of peatlands and are considered as the creator of conditions favorable for carbon storage in the form of peat. Sphagnum angustifolium and Sphagnum fallax are taxonomically very close species. To examine their adaptability to climate change, we studied the morphology and pigment content of these two species from environmental manipulation sites in Poland, where the environment was continuously manipulated for temperature and precipitation. The warming of peat was induced by using infrared heaters, whereas total precipitation was reduced by a curtain that cuts the nighttime precipitation. Morphology of S. angustifolium stayed under climate manipulation relatively stable. However, the main morphological parameters of S. fallax were significantly affected by precipitation reduction. Thus, this study indicates S. angustifolium is better adapted in comparison to S. fallax for drier and warmer conditions.