Project description:The genus Octadecabacter is a member of the ubiquitous marine Roseobacter clade. The two described species of this genus, Octadecabacter arcticus and Octadecabacter antarcticus, are psychrophilic and display a bipolar distribution. Here we provide the manually annotated and finished genome sequences of the type strains O. arcticus 238 and O. antarcticus 307, isolated from sea ice of the Arctic and Antarctic, respectively. Both genomes exhibit a high genome plasticity caused by an unusually high density and diversity of transposable elements. This could explain the discrepancy between the low genome synteny and high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between both strains. Numerous characteristic features were identified in the Octadecabacter genomes, which show indications of horizontal gene transfer and may represent specific adaptations to the habitats of the strains. These include a gene cluster encoding the synthesis and degradation of cyanophycin in O. arcticus 238, which is absent in O. antarcticus 307 and unique among the Roseobacter clade. Furthermore, genes representing a new subgroup of xanthorhodopsins as an adaptation to icy environments are present in both Octadecabacter strains. This new xanthorhodopsin subgroup differs from the previously characterized xanthorhodopsins of Salinibacter ruber and Gloeobacter violaceus in phylogeny, biogeography and the potential to bind 4-keto-carotenoids. Biochemical characterization of the Octadecabacter xanthorhodopsins revealed that they function as light-driven proton pumps.
Project description:The Gram-negative alphaproteobacterium Octadecabacter temperatus SB1 (DSM 26878) belongs to the marine Roseobacter clade. The genome of this strain is the smallest closed genome of the Roseobacter clade. O. temperatus SB1 is the first described nonpolar mesophilic isolate of the genus Octadecabacter and the type strain of the species.
Project description:Psychrophilic enzymes play crucial roles in cold adaptation of microbes and provide useful models for studies of protein evolution, folding, and dynamic properties. We examined the crystal structure (2.2-Å resolution) of the psychrophilic ?-glucosidase BglU, a member of the glycosyl hydrolase 1 (GH1) enzyme family found in the cold-adapted bacterium Micrococcus antarcticus. Structural comparison and sequence alignment between BglU and its mesophilic and thermophilic counterpart enzymes (BglB and GlyTn, respectively) revealed two notable features distinct to BglU: (i) a unique long-loop L3 (35 versus 7 amino acids in others) involved in substrate binding and (ii) a unique amino acid, His299 (Tyr in others), involved in the stabilization of an ordered water molecule chain. Shortening of loop L3 to 25 amino acids reduced low-temperature catalytic activity, substrate-binding ability, the optimal temperature, and the melting temperature (Tm). Mutation of His299 to Tyr increased the optimal temperature, the Tm, and the catalytic activity. Conversely, mutation of Tyr301 to His in BglB caused a reduction in catalytic activity, thermostability, and the optimal temperature (45 to 35°C). Loop L3 shortening and H299Y substitution jointly restored enzyme activity to the level of BglU, but at moderate temperatures. Our findings indicate that loop L3 controls the level of catalytic activity at low temperatures, residue His299 is responsible for thermolability (particularly heat lability of the active center), and long-loop L3 and His299 are jointly responsible for the psychrophilic properties. The described structural basis for the cold adaptedness of BglU will be helpful for structure-based engineering of new cold-adapted enzymes and for the production of mutants useful in a variety of industrial processes at different temperatures.
Project description:The psychrophilic, hydrocarbonoclastic microorganism Colwellia psychrerythraea is important in global nutrient cycling and bioremediation. In order to investigate how this organism can live so efficiently at low temperatures (~4°C), thermal denaturation studies of a small electron transfer protein from Colwellia were performed. Colwellia cytochrome c552 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, isolated, purified, and characterized by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. The melting temperature (Tm) and the van't Hoff enthalpy (?HvH) were determined. These values suggest an unexpectedly high stability for this psychrophilic cytochrome.
Project description:Approximately 40% of all proteins are metalloproteins, and approximately 80% of Earth's ecosystems are at temperatures ?5 °C, including 90% of the global ocean. Thus, an essential aspect of marine metallobiochemistry is an understanding of the structure, dynamics, and mechanisms of cold adaptation of metalloproteins from marine microorganisms. Here, the molecular structure of the electron-transfer protein cytochrome c552 from the psychrophilic marine bacterium Colwellia psychrerythraea 34H has been determined by X-ray crystallography (PDB: ). The structure is highly superimposable with that of the homologous cytochrome from the mesophile Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. Based on structural analysis and comparison of psychrophilic, psychrotolerant, and mesophilic sequences, a methionine-based ligand-substitution mechanism for psychrophilic protein stabilization is proposed.
Project description:A new psychrophilic marine protease was found from a marine bacterium Flavobacterium YS-80 in the Chinese Yellow Sea. The protease is about 49 kD with an isoelectric point about 4.5. It consists of 480 amino acids and is homologous to a psychrophilic alkaline protease (PAP) from an Antarctic Pseudomonas species. The protein was purified from the natural bacterium fermented and crystallized. Its crystal structure (PDB ID 3U1R) was solved at 2.0 Å by Molecular Replacement using a model based on PAP, and was refined to a crystallographic R(work) of 0.16 and an R(free) of 0.21. The marine protease consists of a two domain structure with an N-terminal domain including residues 37-264 and a C-terminal domain including residues 265-480. Similar to PAP, the N-terminal domain is responsible for proteolysis and the C-terminal is for stability. His186, His190, His196 and Tyr226 are ligands for the Zn(2+) ion in the catalytic center. The enzyme's Tyr226 is closer to the Zn(2+) ion than in PAP and it shows a stronger Zn(2+)-Tyr-OH bond. There are eight calcium ions in the marine protease molecule and they have significantly shorter bond distances to their ligands compared to their counterparts in all three crystal forms of PAP. On the other hand, the loops in the marine protease are more compact than in PAP. This makes the total structure stable and less flexible, resulting in higher thermo stability. These properties are consistent with the respective environments of the proteases. The structural analysis of this new marine protease provides new information for the study of psychrophilic proteases and is helpful for elucidating the structure-environment adaptation of these enzymes.
Project description:The products of bacterial ?-glucosidases with favorable cold-adapted properties have industrial applications. A psychrophilic ?-glucosidase gene named bglG from subtropical soil microorganism Exiguobacterium sp. GXG2 was isolated and characterized by function-based screening strategy. Results of multiple alignments showed that the derived protein BglG shared 45.7% identities with reviewed ?-glucosidases in the UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot database. Functional characterization of the ?-glucosidase BglG indicated that BglG was a 468 aa protein with a molecular weight of 53.2 kDa. The BglG showed the highest activity in pH 7.0 at 35 °C and exhibited consistently high levels of activity within low temperatures ranging from 5 to 35 °C. The BglG appeared to be a psychrophilic enzyme. The values of Km, Vmax, kcat, and kcat/Km of recombinant BglG toward ?NPG were 1.1 mM, 1.4 µg/mL/min, 12.7 s-1, and 11.5 mM/s, respectively. The specific enzyme activity of BglG was 12.14 U/mg. The metal ion of Ca2+ and Fe3+ could stimulate the activity of BglG, whereas Mn2+ inhibited the activity. The cold-adapted ?-glucosidase BglG displayed remarkable biochemical properties, making it a potential candidate for future industrial applications.