Project description:The role of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAb) in polymicrobial infection remains elusive. Having observed the ability of CRAb to shelter other susceptible bacteria from carbapenem killing, we sought to determine the factors contributing to this sheltering effect by transforming different recombinant plasmids into recipient A. baumannii cells. The sheltering effects of CRAb were reproduced in recipient A. baumannii cells that highly expressed carbapenem-hydrolyzing class D ?-lactamases (CHDLs) through their associated strong promoter. With the use of Western blot analysis and a bioassay, the highly expressed CHDLs were found to be extracellularly released and led to hydrolysis of carbapenem. The level of extracellular CHDLs increased after challenge with a higher concentration of CHDL substrates, such as carbapenem and ticarcillin. This increased CHDL may, in part, be attributed to cell lysis, as indicated by the presence of extracellular gyrase. In the planktonic condition, the sheltering effect for the cocultured susceptible bacteria might represent an indirect and passive effect of the CRAb self-defense mechanism, because coculture with the susceptible pathogen did not augment the amount of the extracellular CHDLs. Polymicrobial infection caused by CRAb and a susceptible counterpart exerted higher pathogenicity than monomicrobial infection caused by either pathogen alone in mice receiving carbapenem therapy. This study demonstrated that CHDL-producing CRAb appears to provide a sheltering effect for carbapenem-susceptible pathogens via the extracellular release of CHDLs and, by this mechanism, can enhance the pathogenesis of polymicrobial infection in the presence of carbapenem therapy.
Project description:Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) presents a serious therapeutic and infection control challenge. In this study, we investigated the epidemiological and molecular differences of CRAB and the threatening factors for contributing to increased CRAB infections at a hospital in western China. A total of 110 clinical isolates of A. baumannii, collected in a recent 2-year period, were tested for carbapenem antibiotic susceptibility, followed by a molecular analysis of carbapenemase genes. Genetic relatedness of the isolates was characterized by multilocus sequence typing. Sixty-seven of the 110 isolates (60.9%) were resistant to carbapenems, 80.60% (54/67) of which carried the bla OXA-23 gene. Most of these CRAB isolates (77.62%) were classified as clone complex 92 (CC92), and sequence type (ST) 92 was the most prevalent STs, followed by ST195, ST136, ST843, and ST75. One CRAB isolate of ST195 harbored plasmid pAB52 from a Chinese patient without travel history. This plasmid contains toxin-antitoxin elements related to adaptation for growth, which might have emerged as a common vehicle indirectly mediating the spread of OXA-23 in CRAB. Thus, CC92 A. baumannii carrying OXA-23 is a major drug-resistant strain spreading in China. Our findings indicate that rational application of antibiotics is indispensable for minimizing widespread of drug resistance.
Project description:The worldwide distribution of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) has become a global concern, particularly in countries where antibiotic prescription is not tightly regulated. However, knowledge of the genomic aspects of CRAB from many parts of the world is still limited. Here, 50 carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii isolates recovered at a single hospital in Tehran, Iran, during several outbreaks in 2012 and 2013 were found to be resistant to multiple antibiotics. They were examined using PCR mapping and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). All Iranian strains belonged to sequence type 328 in the Institut Pasteur MLST scheme (ST328IP), a single-locus variant of ST81IP, and all Iranian strains contained two carbapenem resistance genes, oxa23 and oxa24. The oxa23 gene is in the transposon Tn2006 in AbaR4, which interrupts the chromosomal comM gene. Phylogenetic analysis using whole-genome sequence (WGS) data for 9 isolates showed that they belonged to the same clade, designated the ST81/ST328 clade, within lineage 2 of global clone 1 (GC1). However, there were two groups that included either KL13 or KL18 at the K locus (KL) for capsular polysaccharide synthesis and either a tet39 or an aadB resistance gene, respectively. The genetic context of the resistance genes was determined, and the oxa24 (OXA-72 variant) and tet39 (tetracycline resistance) genes were each in a pdif module in different plasmids. The aadB gene cassette (which encodes gentamicin, kanamycin, and tobramycin resistance) was harbored by pRAY*, and the aphA6 gene (which encodes amikacin resistance) and sul2 gene (which encodes sulfamethoxazole resistance) were each harbored by a different plasmid. The sequences obtained here will underpin future studies of GC1 CRAB strains from the Middle East region.IMPORTANCE Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains are among the most critical antibiotic-resistant bacteria causing hospital-acquired infections and treatment failures. The global spread of two clones has been responsible for the bulk of the resistance, in particular, carbapenem resistance. However, there is a substantial gap in our knowledge of which clones and which specific lineages within each clone are circulating in many parts of the world, including Africa and the Middle East region. This is the first genomic analysis of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains from Iran. All the isolates, from a single hospital, belonged to lineage 2 of global clone 1 (GC1) but fell into two groups distinguished by genes in the locus for capsule biosynthesis. The analysis suggests a potential origin of multiply antibiotic-resistant lineage 2 in the Middle East region and highlights the ongoing evolution of carbapenem-resistant GC1 A. baumannii strains. It will enhance future studies on the local and global GC1 population structure.
Project description:Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) which is noted as a major pathogen associated with healthcare-associated infections has steadily developed beyond antibiotic control. Lytic bacteriophages with the characteristics of infecting and lysing specific bacteria have been used as a potential alternative to traditional antibiotics to solve multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. Here, we isolated A. baumannii-specific lytic phages and evaluated their potential therapeutic effect against lung infection caused by CRAB clinical strains. The combined lysis spectrum of four lytic phages' ranges was 87.5% (42 of 48) against CRAB clinical isolates. Genome sequence and analysis indicated that phage SH-Ab15519 is a novel phage which does not contain the virulence or antibiotic resistance genes. In vivo study indicated that phage SH-Ab15519 administered intranasally can effectively rescue mice from lethal A. baumannii lung infection without deleterious side effects. Our work explores the potential use of phages as an alternative therapeutic agent against the lung infection caused by CRAB strains.
Project description:Acinetobacter baumannii is an important clinical pathogen which often causes fatal infections among seriously ill patients. Treatment options for managing infections caused by this organism have become limited as a result of emergence of carbapenem resistant strains. In the current study, whole genome sequencing, gene expression studies and enzyme kinetics analyses were performed to investigate the underlying carbapenem resistance mechanisms in fourteen clinical A. baumannii strains isolated from two hospitals, one each in Hong Kong and Henan Province, People's Republic of China. A large majority of the A. baumannii strains (11/14) were found to belong to the International Clone II (IC-II), among which six were ST208. Twelve of these strains were carbapenem resistant and found to either harbor bla OXA- 23/bla OXA- 72, or exhibit over-expression of the bla OXA- 51 gene upon ISAba1 insertion. Enzymatic assay confirmed that the OXA variants, including those of bla OXA - 51, exhibited strong carbapenem-degrading activities. In terms of other intrinsic mechanisms, a weak correlation was observed between reduced production of outer membrane porin CarO/expression resistance-nodulation-division (RND) efflux AdeB and phenotypic resistance. This finding implied that over-production of carbapenem-hydrolyzing-class D-ß-lactamases (CHDLs), including the intrinsic bla OXA- 51 gene and the acquired bla OXA- 23 and bla OXA- 24 elements, is the key mechanism of carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii. This view is confirmed by testing the effect of NaCl, a known bla OXA inhibitor, which was found to cause reduction in carbapenem MIC by twofolds to eightfolds, suggesting that inhibiting OXA type carbapenemases represents the most effective strategy to control phenotypic carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii.
Project description:Due to therapeutic challenges, hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) caused by Acinetobacter baumannii (HA-AB), particularly carbapenem-resistant strains (HA-CRAB) pose a serious health threat to patients worldwide. This systematic review sought to summarize recent data on the incidence and prevalence of HA-AB and HA-CRAB infections in the WHO-defined regions of Europe (EUR), Eastern Mediterranean (EMR) and Africa (AFR). A comprehensive literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE and GMI databases (01/2014-02/2019). Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to determine the pooled incidence of HA-AB and HA-CRAB infections as well as the proportions of A. baumannii among all HAIs. 24 studies from 3,340 records were included in this review (EUR: 16, EMR: 6, AFR: 2). The pooled estimates of incidence and incidence density of HA-AB infection in intensive care units (ICUs) were 56.5 (95% CI 33.9-92.8) cases per 1,000 patients and 4.4 (95% CI 2.9-6.6) cases per 1,000 patient days, respectively. Five studies conducted at a hospital-wide level or in specialized clinical departments/wards (ICU + non-ICU patients) showed HA-AB incidences between 0.85 and 5.6 cases per 1,000 patients. For carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii infections in ICUs, the pooled incidence and incidence density were 41.7 (95% CI 21.6-78.7) cases per 1,000 patients and 2.1 (95% CI 1.2-3.7) cases per 1,000 patient days, respectively. In ICUs, A. baumannii and carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains accounted for 20.9% (95% CI 16.5-26.2%) and 13.6% (95% CI 9.7-18.7%) of all HAIs, respectively. Our study highlights the persistent clinical significance of hospital-acquired A. baumannii infections in the studied WHO regions, particularly in ICUs.
Project description:Acinetobacter baumannii emerged as one of the most important pathogens that causes nosocomial infections due to its increased multidrug resistance. Identifying capsular epidemiology in A. baumannii can aid in the development of effective treatments and preventive measures against this emerging pathogen. Here we established a wzc-based method, and combined it with wzy-PCR to determine capsular types of A. baumannii causing nosocomial bacteraemia collected at two medical centres in Taiwan from 2015 to 2017. Among the 237 patients with A. baumannii bacteraemia, 98 (41.4%) isolates were resistant to carbapenems. Four prevalent capsular types (KL2, KL10, KL22, and KL52) accounted for 84.7% of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) and 12.2% of non-CRAB. The rate of pneumonia, intensive care unit admission, APACHE II score, and Pitt bacteraemia score were higher in patients with KL2/10/22/52 infection than in those with non-KL2/10/22/52 infection. Patients with KL2/10/22/52 infection and patients with CRAB infection have a higher cumulative incidence of attributable and all-cause in-hospital 30-day mortality. On multivariate analysis, appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy within 24?h was associated with a lower risk of 30-day attributable mortality in the KL2/10/22/52 isolates (odds ratio?=?0.19, 95% CI: 0.06-0.66, p?=?0.008) but not in non-KL2/10/22/52 isolates. Early recognition of carbapenem resistance-associated capsular types may help clinicians to promptly implement appropriate antimicrobial therapy for improving the outcomes in patients with CRAB bacteraemia.
Project description:The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, responsible for causing nosocomial infections, has been becoming a significant global health issue. In this article, we report the complete genome sequence of bacteriophage B-B1251 (YMC/09/02/B1251 ABA BP), which causes lysis of a carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strain. The bacteriophage belongs to the family Podoviridae and has a double-stranded circular DNA genome with a length of 45,364 bp and a 39.05% G+C content. Genome analysis showed that it had no similarity to other previously reported bacteriophages capable of infecting A. baumannii.
Project description:Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) and Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) are the leading causes of nosocomial infections. A rapid and sensitive test to detect CRPA and CRAB is required for appropriate antibiotic treatment. We optimized a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to detect the presence of bla(VIM-2), bla(IMP-1), and bla(OXA-23), which are critical components for carbapenem resistance.Two sets of primers, inner and outer primers, were manually designed as previously described. The LAMP buffer was optimized (at 2mM MgSO₄) by testing different concentrations of MgSO₄. The optimal reaction temperature and incubation time were determined by using a gradient thermocycler. Then, the optimized bla(VIM-2), bla(IMP-1), and bla(OXA-23) LAMP reactions were evaluated by using 120 P. aeruginosa and 99 A. baumannii clinical isolates.Only one strain of the 100 CRPA isolates harbored bla(IMP-1), whereas none of them harbored bla(VIM-2). These results indicate that the acquisition of bla(VIM-2) or bla(IMP-1) may not play a major role in carbapenem resistance in Korea. Fifty two strains of the 75 CRAB isolates contained bla(OXA-23), but none contained bla(VIM-2) and bla(IMP-1) alleles.Our results demonstrate the usefulness of LAMP for the diagnosis of CRPA and CRAB.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Between January 2015 and July 2017, we investigated the frequency of carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) and carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) at the Mulago Hospital intensive care unit (ICU) in Kampala, Uganda. Carbapenemase production and carbapenemase gene carriage among CRAB and CRPA were determined; mobility potential of carbapenemase genes via horizontal gene transfer processes was also studied. METHODS:Clinical specimens from 9269 patients were processed for isolation of CRAB and CRPA. Drug susceptibility testing was performed with the disk diffusion method. Carriage of carbapenemase genes and class 1 integrons was determined by PCR. Conjugation experiments that involved blaVIM positive CRAB/CRPA (donors) and sodium azide resistant Escherichia coli J53 (recipient) were performed. RESULTS:The 9269 specimens processed yielded 1077 and 488 isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. Of these, 2.7% (29/1077) and 7.4% (36/488) were confirmed to be CRAB and CRPA respectively, but 46 were available for analysis (21 CRAB and 25 CRPA). Majority of specimens yielding CRAB and CRPA were from the ICU (78%) while 20 and 2% were from the ENT (Ear Nose & Throat) Department and the Burns Unit, respectively. Carbapenemase assays performed with the MHT assay showed that 40 and 33% of CRPA and CRAB isolates respectively, were carbapenemase producers. Also, 72 and 48% of CRPA and CRAB isolates respectively, were metallo-beta-lactamase producers. All the carbapenemase producing isolates were multidrug resistant but susceptible to colistin. blaVIM was the most prevalent carbapenemase gene, and it was detected in all CRAB and CRPA isolates while blaOXA-23 and blaOXA-24 were detected in 29 and 24% of CRAB isolates, respectively. Co-carriage of blaOXA-23 and blaOXA-24 occurred in 14% of CRAB isolates. Moreover, 63% of the study isolates carried class 1 integrons; of these 31% successfully transferred blaVIM to E. coli J53. CONCLUSIONS:CRAB and CRPA prevalence at the Mulago Hospital ICU is relatively low but carbapenemase genes especially blaVIM and blaOXA-23 are prevalent among them. This requires strengthening of infection control practices to curb selection and transmission of these strains in the hospital.