Project description:The role of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAb) in polymicrobial infection remains elusive. Having observed the ability of CRAb to shelter other susceptible bacteria from carbapenem killing, we sought to determine the factors contributing to this sheltering effect by transforming different recombinant plasmids into recipient A. baumannii cells. The sheltering effects of CRAb were reproduced in recipient A. baumannii cells that highly expressed carbapenem-hydrolyzing class D ?-lactamases (CHDLs) through their associated strong promoter. With the use of Western blot analysis and a bioassay, the highly expressed CHDLs were found to be extracellularly released and led to hydrolysis of carbapenem. The level of extracellular CHDLs increased after challenge with a higher concentration of CHDL substrates, such as carbapenem and ticarcillin. This increased CHDL may, in part, be attributed to cell lysis, as indicated by the presence of extracellular gyrase. In the planktonic condition, the sheltering effect for the cocultured susceptible bacteria might represent an indirect and passive effect of the CRAb self-defense mechanism, because coculture with the susceptible pathogen did not augment the amount of the extracellular CHDLs. Polymicrobial infection caused by CRAb and a susceptible counterpart exerted higher pathogenicity than monomicrobial infection caused by either pathogen alone in mice receiving carbapenem therapy. This study demonstrated that CHDL-producing CRAb appears to provide a sheltering effect for carbapenem-susceptible pathogens via the extracellular release of CHDLs and, by this mechanism, can enhance the pathogenesis of polymicrobial infection in the presence of carbapenem therapy.
Project description:Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) presents a serious therapeutic and infection control challenge. In this study, we investigated the epidemiological and molecular differences of CRAB and the threatening factors for contributing to increased CRAB infections at a hospital in western China. A total of 110 clinical isolates of A. baumannii, collected in a recent 2-year period, were tested for carbapenem antibiotic susceptibility, followed by a molecular analysis of carbapenemase genes. Genetic relatedness of the isolates was characterized by multilocus sequence typing. Sixty-seven of the 110 isolates (60.9%) were resistant to carbapenems, 80.60% (54/67) of which carried the bla OXA-23 gene. Most of these CRAB isolates (77.62%) were classified as clone complex 92 (CC92), and sequence type (ST) 92 was the most prevalent STs, followed by ST195, ST136, ST843, and ST75. One CRAB isolate of ST195 harbored plasmid pAB52 from a Chinese patient without travel history. This plasmid contains toxin-antitoxin elements related to adaptation for growth, which might have emerged as a common vehicle indirectly mediating the spread of OXA-23 in CRAB. Thus, CC92 A. baumannii carrying OXA-23 is a major drug-resistant strain spreading in China. Our findings indicate that rational application of antibiotics is indispensable for minimizing widespread of drug resistance.
Project description:Acinetobacter baumannii emerged as one of the most important pathogens that causes nosocomial infections due to its increased multidrug resistance. Identifying capsular epidemiology in A. baumannii can aid in the development of effective treatments and preventive measures against this emerging pathogen. Here we established a wzc-based method, and combined it with wzy-PCR to determine capsular types of A. baumannii causing nosocomial bacteraemia collected at two medical centres in Taiwan from 2015 to 2017. Among the 237 patients with A. baumannii bacteraemia, 98 (41.4%) isolates were resistant to carbapenems. Four prevalent capsular types (KL2, KL10, KL22, and KL52) accounted for 84.7% of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) and 12.2% of non-CRAB. The rate of pneumonia, intensive care unit admission, APACHE II score, and Pitt bacteraemia score were higher in patients with KL2/10/22/52 infection than in those with non-KL2/10/22/52 infection. Patients with KL2/10/22/52 infection and patients with CRAB infection have a higher cumulative incidence of attributable and all-cause in-hospital 30-day mortality. On multivariate analysis, appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy within 24?h was associated with a lower risk of 30-day attributable mortality in the KL2/10/22/52 isolates (odds ratio?=?0.19, 95% CI: 0.06-0.66, p?=?0.008) but not in non-KL2/10/22/52 isolates. Early recognition of carbapenem resistance-associated capsular types may help clinicians to promptly implement appropriate antimicrobial therapy for improving the outcomes in patients with CRAB bacteraemia.
Project description:Due to therapeutic challenges, hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) caused by Acinetobacter baumannii (HA-AB), particularly carbapenem-resistant strains (HA-CRAB) pose a serious health threat to patients worldwide. This systematic review sought to summarize recent data on the incidence and prevalence of HA-AB and HA-CRAB infections in the WHO-defined regions of Europe (EUR), Eastern Mediterranean (EMR) and Africa (AFR). A comprehensive literature search was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE and GMI databases (01/2014-02/2019). Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to determine the pooled incidence of HA-AB and HA-CRAB infections as well as the proportions of A. baumannii among all HAIs. 24 studies from 3,340 records were included in this review (EUR: 16, EMR: 6, AFR: 2). The pooled estimates of incidence and incidence density of HA-AB infection in intensive care units (ICUs) were 56.5 (95% CI 33.9-92.8) cases per 1,000 patients and 4.4 (95% CI 2.9-6.6) cases per 1,000 patient days, respectively. Five studies conducted at a hospital-wide level or in specialized clinical departments/wards (ICU + non-ICU patients) showed HA-AB incidences between 0.85 and 5.6 cases per 1,000 patients. For carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii infections in ICUs, the pooled incidence and incidence density were 41.7 (95% CI 21.6-78.7) cases per 1,000 patients and 2.1 (95% CI 1.2-3.7) cases per 1,000 patient days, respectively. In ICUs, A. baumannii and carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii strains accounted for 20.9% (95% CI 16.5-26.2%) and 13.6% (95% CI 9.7-18.7%) of all HAIs, respectively. Our study highlights the persistent clinical significance of hospital-acquired A. baumannii infections in the studied WHO regions, particularly in ICUs.
Project description:Acinetobacter baumannii is a leading pathogen responsible for nosocomial infections. The emergence of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) has left few effective antibiotics for clinicians to use. To investigate the temporal evolutionary relationships among CRAB strains, we collected 248 CRAB isolates from a Chinese burns institute over 3 years. The prevalence of the OXA-23 gene was detected by polymerase chain reaction. Multilocus sequence typing was used to type the CRAB strains and eBURST was used to analyze their evolutionary relationships. Wound surfaces (41%), sputa (24%), catheters (15%), and bloods (14%) were the four dominant isolation sources. Except for minocycline (33.5%) and sulbactam/cefoperazone (74.6%), these CRAB strains showed high resistance rates (>90%) to 16 tested antibiotics. The 248 isolates fall into 26 sequence types (STs), including nine known STs and 17 unknown STs. The majority (230/248) of these isolates belong to clonal complex 92 (CC92), including eight isolates belonging to seven unreported STs. A new CC containing 11 isolates grouped into four new STs was identified. The OXA-23 gene was detected at high prevalence among the CRAB isolates and the prevalence rate among the various STs differed. The majority of the isolates displayed a close evolutionary relationship, suggesting that serious nosocomial spreading and nosocomial infections of CRAB have occurred in the burn unit. In conclusion, the main CC for CRAB in this Chinese burn unit remained unchanged during the 3-year study period, and a new CC was identified. CC92 was the dominant complex, and more attention should be directed toward monitoring the new CC we have identified herein.
Project description:Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) which is noted as a major pathogen associated with healthcare-associated infections has steadily developed beyond antibiotic control. Lytic bacteriophages with the characteristics of infecting and lysing specific bacteria have been used as a potential alternative to traditional antibiotics to solve multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. Here, we isolated A. baumannii-specific lytic phages and evaluated their potential therapeutic effect against lung infection caused by CRAB clinical strains. The combined lysis spectrum of four lytic phages' ranges was 87.5% (42 of 48) against CRAB clinical isolates. Genome sequence and analysis indicated that phage SH-Ab15519 is a novel phage which does not contain the virulence or antibiotic resistance genes. In vivo study indicated that phage SH-Ab15519 administered intranasally can effectively rescue mice from lethal A. baumannii lung infection without deleterious side effects. Our work explores the potential use of phages as an alternative therapeutic agent against the lung infection caused by CRAB strains.
Project description:Acinetobacter baumannii is an important clinical pathogen which often causes fatal infections among seriously ill patients. Treatment options for managing infections caused by this organism have become limited as a result of emergence of carbapenem resistant strains. In the current study, whole genome sequencing, gene expression studies and enzyme kinetics analyses were performed to investigate the underlying carbapenem resistance mechanisms in fourteen clinical A. baumannii strains isolated from two hospitals, one each in Hong Kong and Henan Province, People's Republic of China. A large majority of the A. baumannii strains (11/14) were found to belong to the International Clone II (IC-II), among which six were ST208. Twelve of these strains were carbapenem resistant and found to either harbor bla OXA- 23/bla OXA- 72, or exhibit over-expression of the bla OXA- 51 gene upon ISAba1 insertion. Enzymatic assay confirmed that the OXA variants, including those of bla OXA - 51, exhibited strong carbapenem-degrading activities. In terms of other intrinsic mechanisms, a weak correlation was observed between reduced production of outer membrane porin CarO/expression resistance-nodulation-division (RND) efflux AdeB and phenotypic resistance. This finding implied that over-production of carbapenem-hydrolyzing-class D-ß-lactamases (CHDLs), including the intrinsic bla OXA- 51 gene and the acquired bla OXA- 23 and bla OXA- 24 elements, is the key mechanism of carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii. This view is confirmed by testing the effect of NaCl, a known bla OXA inhibitor, which was found to cause reduction in carbapenem MIC by twofolds to eightfolds, suggesting that inhibiting OXA type carbapenemases represents the most effective strategy to control phenotypic carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii.
Project description:The rise of antibiotic resistance has necessitated a search for new antimicrobials with potent activity against multidrug-resistant gram-negative pathogens, such as carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB). In this study, a library of botanical extracts generated from plants used to treat infections in traditional medicine was screened for growth inhibition of CRAB. A crude extract of Schinus terebinthifolia leaves exhibited 80% inhibition at 256 µg/mL and underwent bioassay-guided fractionation, leading to the isolation of pentagalloyl glucose (PGG), a bioactive gallotannin. PGG inhibited growth of both CRAB and susceptible A. baumannii (MIC 64-256 µg/mL), and also exhibited activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC 16 µg/mL) and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 64 µg/mL). A mammalian cytotoxicity assay with human keratinocytes (HaCaTs) yielded an IC50 for PGG of 256 µg/mL. Mechanistic experiments revealed iron chelation as a possible mode of action for PGG's activity against CRAB. Passaging assays for resistance did not produce any resistant mutants over a period of 21 days. In conclusion, PGG exhibits antimicrobial activity against CRAB, but due to known pharmacological restrictions in delivery, translation as a therapeutic may be limited to topical applications such as wound rinses and dressings.
Project description:The drug resistance rate of Acinetobacter baumannii increases year on year, and the drugs available for the treatment of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) infection are extremely limited. A. baumannii, which forms biofilms, protects itself by secreting substrates such as exopolysaccharides, allowing it to survive under adverse conditions and increasing drug resistance. Antimicrobial peptides are small molecular peptides with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and immunomodulatory function. Previous studies have shown that the antimicrobial peptide Cec4 has a strong effect on A. baumannii, but the antibacterial and biofilm inhibition of this antimicrobial peptide on clinical carbapenem resistance A. baumannii is not thoroughly understood. In this study, it was indicated that most of the 200 strains of CRAB were susceptible to Cec4 with a MIC of 4 ?g/ml. Cec4 has a strong inhibitory and eradication effect on the CRAB biofilm; the minimum biofilm inhibition concentration (MBIC) was 64-128 ?g/ml, and the minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) was 256-512 ?g/ml. It was observed that Cec4 disrupted the structure of the biofilm using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). A comparative transcriptome analysis of the effects of the antimicrobial peptide Cec4 on CRAB biofilm, identified 185 differentially expressed genes, including membrane proteins, bacterial resistance genes, and pilus-related genes. The results show that multiple metabolic pathways, two-component regulation systems, quorum sensing, and antibiotic synthesis-related pathways in A. baumannii biofilms were affected after Cec4 treatment. In conclusion, Cec4 may represent a new choice for the prevention and treatment of clinical infections, and may also provide a theoretical basis for the development of antimicrobial peptide drugs.
Project description:Background:The present study aimed to perform a deep phenotypic and genotypic analysis of 15 clinical carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAb) strains isolated in Madagascar between 2008 and 2016 from diverse sources. Methods:CRAb isolates collected from the Clinical Biology Centre of the Institut Pasteur of Madagascar, from the neonatal unit of Antananarivo military hospital, and from intensive care units of Mahajanga Androva and Antananarivo Joseph Ravoahangy Andrianavalona (HJRA) hospitals were subjected to susceptibility testing. Whole-genome sequencing allowed us to assess the presence of antibiotic-resistance determinants, insertion sequences, integrons, genomic islands and potential virulence factors in all strains. The structure of the carO porin gene and deduced protein (CarO) were also assessed in CRAb isolates. Results:All isolates were found to be multidrug-resistant strains. Antibiotic-resistance genes against six classes of antimicrobial agents were described. The four carbapenem-resistance genes: bla OXA-51 like , bla OXA-23 , bla OXA-24 , and bla OXA-58 genes were detected in 100, 53.3, 13.3, and 6.6% of the isolates, respectively. Additionally, an ISAba1 located upstream of bla OXA-23 and bla ADC-like genes was observed in 53.3 and 66.7% of isolates, respectively. Further, Tn2006 and Tn2008 were found associated to the ISAba1-bla OXA-23 structure. An 8051-bp mobilizable plasmid harbouring the bla OXA-24 gene was isolated in two strains. In addition, 46.7% of isolates were positive for class 1 integrons. Overall, five sequences types (STs), with predominantly ST2, were detected. Several virulence genes were found in the CRAb isolates, among which two genes, epsA and ptk, responsible for the capsule-positive phenotype, were involved in A. baumannii pathogenesis. Conclusions:This study revealed the presence of high-level carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii with the first description of OXA-24 and OXA-58 carbapenemases in Madagascar. This highlights the importance of better monitoring and controlling CRAb in Madagascan hospitals to avoid their spread.