Project description:Purpose-bred common marmosets from domestic sources housed in a US research facility, and used in multiple drug discovery programmes, were noted to have a high incidence of spontaneous inflammatory bowel disease and sporadic cholecystitis and cholangiohepatitis. Inflammatory infiltrates increased in incidence and severity with age. Because Helicobacter spp. have been linked to gastrointestinal diseases, samples from the gastrointestinal tracts of 39 marmosets were screened for Helicobacter spp. by culture and PCR. Helicobacter spp. were frequently detected in marmosets; 28.2% of the marmosets were positive for a proposed novel species, Helicobacter jaachi sp. nov., by culture, and 48.7% were positive by Helicobacter genus-specific PCR. Seventeen strains of Helicobacter sp. from 11 marmosets were cultured from various gastrointestinal sites. Older animals (age 6-11 years) had a higher helicobacter prevalence rate (57.1%) compared with younger animals (age 3-5 years), which had a 27.2% prevalence rate. Cells of H. jaachi sp. nov. were catalase, urease and oxidase positive and had fusiform morphology, with periplasmic fibres and multiple bipolar, sheathed flagella. All isolates had similar 16S and 23S rRNA sequences, which clustered as representatives of a novel Helicobacter species closely related to 'Helicobacter sanguini' (97%), a species isolated from cotton-top tamarins and 'Helicobacter callitrichis' (96%) isolated previously from the faeces of common marmosets. The whole genome sequence of one of the liver isolates, H. jaachi sp. nov. MIT 09-6949(T), had a 1.9 Mb genome length with a 41 mol% DNA G+C content. The type strain of Helicobacter jaachi sp. nov., MIT 09-6949(T), has been deposited in the BCCM/LMG Bacteria Collection as LMG 28613(T). These findings add to the increasing number of animal species with gastrointestinal disease in which novel enterohepatic Helicobacter spp. have been isolated.
Project description:From 1997 to 1999 seven isolates of Campylobacter-like organisms from five patients that were exhibiting symptoms of gastroenteritis, including fever, stomach malaise, and diarrhea, were investigated. The organisms were isolated from stool samples and found to exhibit a diverse colony morphology; hence multiple isolates were submitted from one of the patients. All isolates were found to be identical. The organisms were catalase, urease, alkaline phosphatase, and nitrate negative but oxidase and indoxyl acetate positive. They grew at 37 degrees C but not at 42 degrees C, and three of the isolates from two different patients were sensitive to nalidixic acid and cephalothin. Full 16S rRNA sequence analysis not only grouped these organisms within the Helicobacter genus but also differentiated them from previously identified Helicobacter species. The closest relative by phylogenetic analysis was Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxon 1. Electron microscopy showed that these isolates had one or two bipolar flagella; however, the periplasmic fibers, a characteristic of the known Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxa, were not observed. The present isolates also lacked a flagellar sheath, a trait shared with four other Helicobacter spp., H. canadensis, H. mesocricetorum, H. pullorum, and H. rodentium. On the basis of the unique phenotypic properties of these isolates and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, we propose the classification of a new Helicobacter species, Helicobacter winghamensis sp. nov.
Project description:A novel helicobacter with the proposed name Helicobacter aurati (type strain MIT 97-5075c) has been isolated from the inflamed stomachs and ceca of adult Syrian hamsters. The new species is fusiform with multiple bipolar sheathed flagella and periplasmic fibers; it contains urease and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. By 16S rRNA sequencing and repetitive element PCR-based DNA fingerprinting, it was found that H. aurati represents a distinct taxon and clusters with Helicobacter muridarum, Helicobacter hepaticus, and Helicobacter sp. MIT 94-022. H. aurati was recovered from hamsters housed in various research and vendor facilities. Further studies are necessary to define its association with disease and other microbiota in hamsters, as well as its impact on research projects involving hamsters. H. aurati (GenBank accession number AF297868) can be used in animal experiments to define the factors that are important for gastric helicobacter pathogenesis.
Project description:We report the isolation of a novel helicobacter isolated from the caecum of the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus). Sequence analysis showed 97% sequence similarity to Helicobacter ganmani. In addition, we report the co-infection of these Siberian hamsters with a Campylobacter sp. and a second Helicobacter sp. with 99% sequence similarity to Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxon 8 (Helicobacter bilis), a species isolated previously from patients with bacteraemia. Gross necropsy and histopathology did not reveal any overt pathological lesions of the liver and gastrointestinal tract that could be attributed to the Helicobacter or Campylobacter spp. infections. This is the first helicobacter to be identified in the Siberian hamster and the first report of co-infection of Helicobacter spp. and Campylobacter sp. in asymptomatic Siberian hamsters.
Project description:We report the first case of Helicobacter sp. osteomyelitis in an immunocompetent child. The infection was diagnosed by broad-range 16S PCR followed by sequencing of the resulting amplicon. All other microbiological investigations proved negative. This case highlights the importance of molecular methods in the diagnosis of unsuspected etiological agents and the potential role of Helicobacter sp. in human infection.
Project description:Woodchucks (Marmota monax) have a high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) associated with chronic infection with woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) and serve as a model of hepatitis B virus-associated HCC in humans. Helicobacter hepaticus, an enterohepatic helicobacter in mice, is known to cause hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in susceptible mouse strains. In long-term chemical bioassays conducted with B6C3F(1) mice, H. hepaticus has been regarded as a confounding factor because of its tumor-promoting activity. In order to determine if woodchucks harbor a Helicobacter sp. that might play a role in potentiating hepatic inflammation or neoplasia, a study was undertaken to determine whether woodchucks' livers were infected with a Helicobacter sp. Frozen liver samples from 20 (17 WHV-infected and 3 noninfected) woodchucks, 10 with WHV-associated hepatic tumors and 10 without tumors, were cultured by microaerobic techniques and analyzed by using genus- and species-specific helicobacter PCR primers. A 1,200-bp Helicobacter sp.-specific sequence was amplified from 14 liver samples. Southern hybridization confirmed the specific identity of the PCR products. Nine of the 10 livers with tumors had positive Helicobacter sp. identified by PCR, whereas 5 of the 10 livers without tumors were positive. By use of 16S rRNA species-specific primers for H. marmotae, two additional liver samples from the nontumor group had positive PCR amplicons confirmed by Southern hybridization. A urease-, catalase-, and oxidase-positive bacterium was isolated from one liver sample from a liver tumor-positive woodchuck. By 16S rRNA analysis and biochemical and phenotypic characteristics, the organism was classified as a novel Helicobacter sp. Subsequently, four additional bacterial strains isolated from feces of cats and characterized by biochemical, phenotypic, and 16S rRNA analysis were determined to be identical to the woodchuck isolate. We propose the name Helicobacter marmotae sp. nov. for these organisms. Further studies are required to ascertain if this novel Helicobacter sp. plays a tumor promotion role in hepadnavirus-associated tumors in woodchucks or causes enterohepatic disease in cats.
Project description:Over the past decade, several Helicobacter species have been isolated from rodents. With the advent of PCR for the diagnosis of infectious agents, it has become clear that several previously uncharacterized Helicobacter species also colonize rodents. In this report, we describe a novel urease-negative helicobacter, Helicobacter typhlonius sp. nov., which was isolated from colonies of laboratory mice independently by two laboratories. Infection of immunodeficient mice by this bacterium resulted in typhlocolitis similar to that observed with other helicobacter infections. H. typhlonius is genetically most closely related to H. hepaticus. Like H. hepaticus, it is a spiral bacterium with bipolar sheathed flagella. However, this novel species contains a large intervening sequence in its 16S rRNA gene and is biochemically distinct from H. hepaticus. Notably, H. typhlonius does not produce urease or H(2)S nor does it hydrolize indoxyl-acetate. Compared to other Helicobacter species that commonly colonize rodents, H. typhlonius was found to be less prevalent than H. hepaticus and H. rodentium but as prevalent as H. bilis. H. typhlonius joins a growing list of helicobacters that colonize mice and are capable of inducing enteric disease in various strains of immunodeficient mice.
Project description:A novel helicobacter with the proposed name Helicobacter cetorum, sp. nov. (type strain MIT 99-5656; GenBank accession number AF 292378), was cultured from the main stomach of two wild, stranded Atlantic white-sided dolphins (Lagenorhynchus acutus) and from the feces of three captive cetaceans (a Pacific white-sided dolphin [Lagenorhynchus obliquidens]; an Atlantic bottlenose dolphin [Tursiops truncatus]; and a beluga whale [Delphinapterus leucas]). The infected captive cetaceans were either subclinical, or clinical signs included intermittent regurgitation, inappetance, weight loss, and lethargy. Ulcers were observed in the esophagus and forestomach during endoscopic examination in two of the three captive animals. In the third animal, esophageal linear erosions were visualized endoscopically, and histopathological evaluation of the main stomach revealed multifocal lymphoplasmacytic gastritis with silver-stained spiral-shaped bacteria. Helicobacter cetorum is a fusiform gram-negative bacterium with a single bipolar flagellum. The isolates grow under microaerobic conditions at 37 and 42 degrees C but not at 25 degrees C. H. cetorum is urease, catalase, and oxidase positive, and it is sensitive to cephalothin. The isolates from the wild, stranded dolphins were sensitive to nalidixic acid, whereas the isolates from the collection animals were resistant. By 16S rRNA sequencing it was determined that H. cetorum represented a distinct taxon that clusters most closely with H. pylori. Further studies are necessary to determine the role of H. cetorum in the development of gastric ulcers and gastritis of cetaceans. This is the first description and formal naming of a novel Helicobacter species from a marine mammal.
Project description:A young immunocompetent patient was admitted for a febrile illness with malaise, arthralgias, painful leg swelling, and polyserositis. Shortly prior to becoming ill, the patient had traveled to the Northern African desert. The symptoms disappeared during treatment with antibiotics (doxycycline and ceftriaxone) but recurred twice after stopping therapy. A motile gram-negative fusiform rod was isolated from a blood culture taken on the first admission. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of the blood culture isolate revealed close similarity with Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxon 8 (99.9% identity), a species that was previously reported as "Flexispira rappini." This is the first reported case of a recurrent Helicobacter sp. flexispira bacteremia in an adult, immunocompetent patient.
Project description:Prophages are regarded as one of the factors underlying bacterial virulence, genomic diversification, and fitness, and are ubiquitous in bacterial genomes. Information on Helicobacter sp. prophages remains scarce. In this study, sixteen prophages were identified and analyzed in detail. Eight of them are described for the first time. Based on a comparative genomic analysis, these sixteen prophages can be classified into four different clusters. Phylogenetic relationships of Cluster A Helicobacter prophages were investigated. Furthermore, genomes of Helicobacter prophages from Clusters B, C, and D were analyzed. Interestingly, some putative antibiotic resistance proteins and virulence factors were associated with Helicobacter prophages.