Project description:Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a major foodborne human pathogen causing disease worldwide. Cattle are a major reservoir for this pathogen and those that shed E. coli O157:H7 at >104 CFU/g feces have been termed "super-shedders". A rich microbial community inhabits the mammalian intestinal tract, but it is not known if the structure of this community differs between super-shedder cattle and their non-shedding pen mates. We hypothesized that the super-shedder state is a result of an intestinal dysbiosis of the microbial community and that a "normal" microbiota prevents E. coli O157:H7 from reaching super-shedding levels. To address this question, we applied 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes to characterize fecal bacterial communities from 11 super-shedders and 11 contemporary pen mates negative for E. coli O157:H7. The dataset was analyzed by using five independent clustering methods to minimize potential biases and to increase confidence in the results. Our analyses collectively indicated significant variations in microbiome composition between super-shedding and non-shedding cattle. Super-shedders exhibited higher bacterial richness and diversity than non-shedders. Furthermore, seventy-two operational taxonomic units, mostly belonging to Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes phyla, were identified showing differential abundance between these two groups of cattle. The operational taxonomic unit affiliation provides new insight into bacterial populations that are present in feces arising from super-shedders of E. coli O157:H7.
Project description:Cattle are the primary reservoir of the foodborne pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7, with the concentration and frequency of E. coli O157:H7 shedding varying substantially among individual hosts. The term ''super-shedder" has been applied to cattle that shed ≥10(4) cfu E. coli O157:H7/g of feces. Super-shedders have been reported to be responsible for the majority of E. coli O157:H7 shed into the environment. The objective of this study was to determine if there are phenotypic and/or genotypic differences between E. coli O157:H7 isolates obtained from super-shedder compared to low-shedder cattle. From a total of 784 isolates, four were selected from low-shedder steers and six isolates from super-shedder steers (4.01-8.45 log cfu/g feces) for whole genome sequencing. Isolates were phage and clade typed, screened for substrate utilization, pH sensitivity, virulence gene profiles and Stx bacteriophage insertion (SBI) sites. A range of 89-2473 total single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified when sequenced strains were compared to E. coli O157:H7 strain Sakai. More non-synonymous SNP mutations were observed in low-shedder isolates. Pan-genomic and SNPs comparisons did not identify genetic segregation between super-shedder or low-shedder isolates. All super-shedder isolates and 3 of 4 of low-shedder isolates were typed as phage type 14a, SBI cluster 3 and SNP clade 2. Super-shedder isolates displayed increased utilization of galactitol, thymidine and 3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-D-arabinose when compared to low-shedder isolates, but no differences in SNPs were observed in genes encoding for proteins involved in the metabolism of these substrates. While genetic traits specific to super-shedder isolates were not identified in this study, differences in the level of gene expression or genes of unknown function may still contribute to some strains of E. coli O157:H7 reaching high densities within bovine feces.
Project description:Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a foodborne pathogen that colonizes ruminants. Cattle are considered the primary reservoir of E. coli O157:H7 with super-shedders, defined as individuals excreting > 104 E. coli O157:H7 CFU g-1 feces. The mechanisms leading to the super-shedding condition are largely unknown. Here, we used 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing to examine the composition of the fecal bacterial community in order to investigate changes in the bacterial microbiota at several locations along the digestive tract (from the duodenum to the rectal-anal junction) in 5 steers previously identified as super-shedders and 5 non-shedders. The overall bacterial community structure did not differ by E. coli O157:H7 shedding status; but several differences in the relative abundance of taxa and OTUs were noted between the two groups. The genus Prevotella was most enriched in the non-shedders while the genus Ruminococcus and the Bacteroidetes phylum were notably enriched in the super-shedders. There was greater bacterial diversity and richness in samples collected from the lower- as compared to the upper gastrointestinal tract (GI). The spiral colon was the only GI location that differed in terms of bacterial diversity between super-shedders and non-shedders. These findings reinforced linkages between E. coli O157:H7 colonization in cattle and the nature of the microbial community inhabiting the digestive tract of super-shedders.
Project description:Portions of the intimin genes of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain E319 and of the enteropathogenic E. coli O127:H6 strain E2348/69 were amplified by PCR and cloned into pET-28a+ expression vectors. The entire 934 amino acids (aa) of E. coli O157:H7 intimin, the C-terminal 306 aa of E. coli O157:H7 intimin, and the C-terminal 311 aa of E. coli O127:H6 intimin were expressed as proteins fused with a six-histidine residue tag (six-His tag) in pET-28a+. Rabbit antisera raised against the six-His tag-full-length E. coli O157:H7 intimin protein fusion cross-reacted in slot and Western blots with outer membrane protein preparations from the majority of enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic E. coli serotypes which have the intimin gene. The E. coli strains tested included isolates from humans and animals which produce intimin types alpha (O serogroups 86, 127, and 142), beta1 (O serogroups 5, 26, 46, 69, 111, 126, and 128), gamma 1 (O serogroups 55, 145, and 157), gamma 2 (O serogroups 111 and 103), and epsilon (O serogroup 103) and a nontypeable intimin (O serogroup 80), results based on intimin type-specific PCR assays. Rabbit antisera raised against the E. coli O157:H7 C-terminal fusion protein were much more intimin type-specific than those raised against the full-length intimin fusion protein, but some cross-reaction with other intimin types was also observed for these antisera. In contrast, the monoclonal antibody Intgamma1.C11, raised against the C-terminal E. coli O157 intimin, reacted only with preparations from intimin gamma 1-producing E. coli strains such as E. coli O157:H7.
Project description:A signal-off impedimetric immune-biosensor based on gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-mediated electron transfer (ET) across a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) was the developed for highly sensitive detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 bacteria. The biosensor was fabricated by covalently grafting an anti-Escherichia coli O157:H7 antibody onto SAM-modified gold electrodes. Following bacterial capture, the sensor was further modified by the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Due to the strong interaction between AuNPs and Escherichia coli O157:H7, AuNPs attached to the surface of the bacteria and acted as ET pathways across the insulating SAMs on the electrode surface, resulting in a significant reduction of the electron transfer resistance (Ret) between the [Fe(CN)6](3-/4-) redox probe in the solution and the substrate gold surface. Therefore, the attachment AuNPs to captured bacteria significantly enhanced the sensitivity for Escherichia coli O157:H7 bacteria detection.
Project description:The rapid emergence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 from an unknown strain in 1982 to the dominant hemorrhagic E. coli serotype in the United States and the cause of widespread outbreaks of human food-borne illness highlights a need to evaluate critically the extent to which genomic plasticity of this important enteric pathogen contributes to its pathogenic potential and its evolution as well as its adaptation in different ecological niches. Aimed at a better understanding of the evolution of the E. coli O157:H7 pathogenome, the present study presents the high-quality sequencing and comparative phylogenomic analysis of a comprehensive panel of 25 E. coli O157:H7 strains associated with three nearly simultaneous food-borne outbreaks of human disease in the United States. Here we present a population genetic analysis of more than 200 related strains recovered from patients, contaminated produce, and zoonotic sources. High-resolution phylogenomic approaches allow the dynamics of pathogenome evolution to be followed at a high level of phylogenetic accuracy and resolution. SNP discovery and study of genome architecture and prophage content identified numerous biomarkers to assess the extent of genetic diversity within a set of clinical and environmental strains. A total of 1,225 SNPs were identified in the present study and are now available for typing of the E. coli O157:H7 lineage. These data should prove useful for the development of a refined phylogenomic framework for forensic, diagnostic, and epidemiological studies to define better risk in response to novel and emerging E. coli O157:H7 resistance and virulence phenotypes.
Project description:Vaccination-induced Escherichia coli O157:H7-specific immune responses have been shown to reduce E. coli O157:H7 shedding in cattle. Although E. coli O157:H7 colonization is correlated with perturbations in intestinal microbial diversity, it is not yet known whether vaccination against E. coli O157:H7 could cause shifts in bovine intestinal microbiota. To understand the impact of E. coli O157:H7 vaccination and colonization on intestinal microbial diversity, cattle were vaccinated with two doses of different E. coli O157:H7 vaccine formulations. Six weeks post-vaccination, the two vaccinated groups (Vx-Ch) and one non-vaccinated group (NonVx-Ch) were orally challenged with E. coli O157:H7. Another group was neither vaccinated nor challenged (NonVx-NonCh). Fecal microbiota analysis over a 30-day period indicated a significant (FDR corrected, p <0.05) association of bacterial community structure with vaccination until E. coli O157:H7 challenge. Shannon diversity index and species richness were significantly lower in vaccinated compared to non-vaccinated groups after E. coli O157:H7 challenge (p < 0.05). The Firmicutes:Bacteroidetes ratio (p > 0.05) was not associated with vaccination but the relative abundance of Proteobacteria was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in vaccinated calves after E. coli O157:H7 challenge. Similarly, Vx-Ch calves had higher relative abundance of Paeniclostridium spp. and Christenellaceae R7 group while Campylobacter spp., and Sutterella spp. were more abundant in NonVx-Ch group post-E. coli O157:H7 challenge. Only Vx-Ch calves had significantly higher (p < 0.001) E. coli O157:H7-specific serum IgG but no detectable E. coli O157:H7-specific IgA. However, E. coli O157:H7-specific IL-10-producing T cells were detected in vaccinated animals prior to challenge, but IFN-?-producing T cells were not detected. Neither E. coli O157:H7-specific IgG nor IgA were detected in blood or feces, respectively, of NonVx-Ch and NonVx-NonCh groups prior to or post vaccinations. Both Vx-Ch and NonVx-Ch animals shed detectable levels of challenge strain during the course of the study. Despite the lack of protection with the vaccine formulations there were detectable shifts in the microbiota of vaccinated animals before and after challenge with E. coli O157:H7.
Project description:Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) of serotype O157:H7 has been implicated in food-borne illnesses worldwide. An evolutionary model was proposed in which the highly pathogenic EHEC O157:H7 serotype arose from its ancestor, enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) O55:H7 (sorbitol fermenting [SOR(+)] and β-glucuronidase positive [GUD(+)]), through sequential gain of virulence, phenotypic traits, and serotype change. Here we report six draft genomes of strains belonging to this evolutionary model: two EPEC O55:H7 (SOR(+) GUD(+)) strains, two nonmotile EHEC O157:H(-) strains (SOR(+) GUD(+)) containing plasmid pSFO157, one EHEC O157:H7 (SOR(-) GUD(+)) strain, and one O157:H7 strain containing plasmid pSFO157 (SOR(+) GUD(+)).
Project description:Transcript abundance in Escherichia coli O157:H7 was determined in the presence or absence of pulsed expression of the small RNA, AsxR. AsxR was cloned under the control the arabinose inducible promoter Para. Escherichia coli O157:H7 str. TUV93-0 with pAsxR or empty vector was cultured in MEM-HEPES media to an OD600 of 0.8 and 0.2% arabinose added. 10min after addition of arabinose 10ml of cells were harvested and and pellets resuspended in 1ml of Trizol and total RNA isolated. RNAs were labelled using the SuperScript Plus indirect cDNA labelling System. Triplicate control RNAs were pooled and hybridised to seperate AsxR test RNAs on three microarays. Arrays were hybridised using the Maui hybridisation platform and Scann using and Axon Autoloader Scanner. GenePix software was used to analyse images and GPR files were analysed using Genespring 7.3.1.
Project description:A mosaic genomic island comprising Shigella resistance locus (SRL) sequences flanked by segments of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL933 O islands 43, 81, and 82 was identified in sorbitol-fermenting (SF) enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H(-) strain 493/89. This mosaic island is absent from strain EDL933. PCR targeting the SRL-related sequence is a useful tool to distinguish SF EHEC O157:H(-) from EHEC O157:H7.