Project description:This experiment contains the subset of data corresponding to human RNA-Seq data from experiment E-GEOD-30352 (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/experiments/E-GEOD-30352/), which goal is to understand the dynamics of mammalian transcriptome evolution. To study mammalian transcriptome evolution at high resolution, we generated RNA-Seq data (?3.2 billion Illumina Genome Analyser IIx reads of 76 base pairs) for the polyadenylated RNA fraction of brain (cerebral cortex or whole brain without cerebellum), cerebellum, heart, kidney, liver and testis (usually from one male and one female per somatic tissue and two males for testis) from nine mammalian species: placental mammals (great apes, including humans; rhesus macaque; mouse), marsupials (gray short-tailed opossum) and monotremes (platypus). Corresponding data (?0.3 billion reads) were generated for a bird (red jungle fowl, a non-domesticated chicken) and used as an evolutionary outgroup.
Project description:This experiment contains the subset of data corresponding to human RNA-Seq data from experiment E-GEOD-30352 (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/experiments/E-GEOD-30352/), which goal is to understand the dynamics of mammalian transcriptome evolution. To study mammalian transcriptome evolution at high resolution, we generated RNA-Seq data (∼3.2 billion Illumina Genome Analyser IIx reads of 76 base pairs) for the polyadenylated RNA fraction of brain (cerebral cortex or whole brain without cerebellum), cerebellum, heart, kidney, liver and testis (usually from one male and one female per somatic tissue and two males for testis) from nine mammalian species: placental mammals (great apes, including humans; rhesus macaque; mouse), marsupials (gray short-tailed opossum) and monotremes (platypus). Corresponding data (∼0.3 billion reads) were generated for a bird (red jungle fowl, a non-domesticated chicken) and used as an evolutionary outgroup.
Project description:N4-methylcytosine is a major DNA modification integral to restriction-modification (R-M) systems in bacterial genomes. Here we describe 4mC-Tet-Assisted Bisulfite-sequencing (4mC-TAB-seq), a method that accurately and rapidly reveals the genome-wide locations of N4-methylcytosines at single-base resolution. By coupling Tet-mediated oxidation with a modified sodium bisulfite conversion reaction, unmodified cytosines and 5-methylcytosines are read out as thymines, whereas N4-methylcytosines are read out as cytosines revealing their positions throughout the genome. 4mC-TAB-seq
Project description:The structure of human brain CutA1 (HsCutA1) has been determined using diffraction data to 2.05 A resolution. HsCutA1 has been implicated in the anchoring of acetylcholinesterase in neuronal cell membranes, while its bacterial homologue Escherichia coli CutA1 is involved in copper tolerance. Additionally, the structure of HsCutA1 bears similarity to that of the signal transduction protein PII, which is involved in regulation of nitrogen metabolism. Although several crystal structures of CutA1 from various sources with different rotation angles and degrees of interaction between trimer interfaces have been reported, the specific functional role of CutA1 is still unclear. In this study, the X-ray structure of HsCutA1 was determined in space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 68.69, b = 88.84, c = 125.33 A and six molecules per asymmetric unit. HsCutA1 is a trimeric molecule with intertwined antiparallel beta-strands; each subunit has a molecular weight of 14.6 kDa and contains 135 amino-acid residues. In order to obtain clues to the possible function of HsCutA1, its crystal structure was compared with those of other CutA1 and PII proteins.
Project description:The human protein PTD012 is the longer product of an alternatively spliced gene and was described to be localized in the nucleus. The X-ray structure analysis at 1.7 A resolution of PTD012 through SAD phasing reveals a monomeric protein and a novel fold. The shorter splice form was also studied and appears to be unfolded and non-functional. The structure of PTD012 displays an alphabetabetaalpha four-layer topology. A metal ion residing between the central beta-sheets is partially coordinated by three histidine residues. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis identifies the PTD012-bound ion as Zn(2+). Tetrahedral coordination of the ion is completed by the carboxylate oxygen atom of an acetate molecule taken up from the crystallization buffer. The binding of Zn(2+) to PTD012 is reminiscent of zinc-containing enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, carbonic anhydrase, and beta-lactamase. Biochemical assays failed to demonstrate any of these enzyme activities in PTD012. However, PTD012 exhibits ester hydrolase activity on the substrate p-nitrophenyl acetate.
Project description:We have sequenced miRNA libraries from human embryonic, neural and foetal mesenchymal stem cells. We report that the majority of miRNA genes encode mature isomers that vary in size by one or more bases at the 3’ and/or 5’ end of the miRNA. Northern blotting for individual miRNAs showed that the proportions of isomiRs expressed by a single miRNA gene often differ between cell and tissue types. IsomiRs were readily co-immunoprecipitated with Argonaute proteins in vivo and were active in luciferase assays, indicating that they are functional. Bioinformatics analysis predicts substantial differences in targeting between miRNAs with minor 5’ differences and in support of this we report that a 5’ isomiR-9-1 gained the ability to inhibit the expression of DNMT3B and NCAM2 but lost the ability to inhibit CDH1 in vitro. This result was confirmed by the use of isomiR-specific sponges. Our analysis of the miRGator database indicates that a small percentage of human miRNA genes express isomiRs as the dominant transcript in certain cell types and analysis of miRBase shows that 5’ isomiRs have replaced canonical miRNAs many times during evolution. This strongly indicates that isomiRs are of functional importance and have contributed to the evolution of miRNA genes Sequence library of miRNAs from a single sample of human foetal mesenchymal stem cells. Results tested and confirmed by northern blotting. Please note that only raw data files are available for the embryonic and neual samples and thus, directly submitted to SRA (SRX547311, SRX548700, respectively under SRP042115/PRJNA247767)
Project description:Human quinolinate phosphoribosyltransferase (EC 220.127.116.11) (hQPRTase) is a member of the type II phosphoribosyltransferase family involved in the catabolism of quinolinic acid (QA). It catalyses the formation of nicotinic acid mononucleotide from quinolinic acid, which involves a phosphoribosyl transfer reaction followed by decarboxylation. hQPRTase has been implicated in a number of neurological conditions and in order to study it further, we have carried out structural and kinetic studies on recombinant hQPRTase. The structure of the fully active enzyme overexpressed in Escherichia coli was solved using multiwavelength methods to a resolution of 2.0 A. hQPRTase has a alpha/beta barrel fold sharing a similar overall structure with the bacterial QPRTases. The active site of hQPRTase is located at an alpha/beta open sandwich structure that serves as a cup for the alpha/beta barrel of the adjacent subunit with a QA binding site consisting of three arginine residues (R102, R138 and R161) and two lysine residues (K139 and K171). Mutation of these residues affected substrate binding or abolished the enzymatic activity. The kinetics of the human enzyme are different to the bacterial enzymes studied, hQPRTase is inhibited competitively and non-competitively by one of its substrates, 5-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate (PRPP). The human enzyme adopts a hexameric arrangement, which places the active sites in close proximity to each other.
Project description:Summary:Existing ways of accessing data from the Reactome database are limited. Either a researcher is restricted to particular queries defined by a web application programming interface (API) or they have to download the whole database. Reactome Pengine is a web service providing a logic programming-based API to the human reactome. This gives researchers greater flexibility in data access than existing APIs, as users can send their own small programs (alongside queries) to Reactome Pengine. Availability and implementation:The server and an example notebook can be found at https://apps.nms.kcl.ac.uk/reactome-pengine. Source code is available at https://github.com/samwalrus/reactome-pengine and a Docker image is available at https://hub.docker.com/r/samneaves/rp4/. Supplementary information:Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Protein-coding regions in a genome evolve by sequence divergence and gene gain and loss, altering the gene content of the organism. However, it is not well understood how this has given rise to the enormous diversity of metazoa present today.<h4>Results</h4>To obtain a global view of human genomic evolution, we quantify the divergence of proteins by functional category at different evolutionary distances from human.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This analysis highlights some general systems-level characteristics of human evolution: regulatory processes, such as signal transducers, transcription factors and receptors, have a high degree of plasticity, while core processes, such as metabolism, transport and protein synthesis, are largely conserved. Additionally, this study reveals a dynamic picture of selective forces at short, medium and long evolutionary timescales. Certain functional categories, such as 'development' and 'organogenesis', exhibit temporal patterns of sequence divergence in eukaryotes relative to human. This framework for a grammar of human evolution supports previously postulated theories of robustness and evolvability.