Project description:In order to comprehensively identify genes directly regulated by AP4, a genome-wide chromatin-immunoprecipitation analysis (ChIP) followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) was performed after activation of a conditional AP4 allele in DLD-1 cells. One DLD-1 Sample was sequenced.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible cell growth arrest and senescence cells permanently lose proliferation potential. Induction of cellular senescence might be a novel therapy for cancer cells. TRIB2 has been reported to participate in regulating proliferation and drug resistance of various cancer cells. However, the role of TRIB2 in cellular senescence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and its molecular mechanism remains unclear. METHODS:The expression of TRIB2 in colorectal cancer tissues and adjacent tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR. The growth, cell cycle distribution and cellular senescence of colorectal cancer cells were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) assay, flow cytometry detection and senescence-associated ?-galactosidase staining, respectively. Western blot, RT-PCR and luciferase assay were performed to determine how TRIB2 regulates p21. Immunoprecipitation (IP) and chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) were used to investigate the molecular mechanisms. RESULTS:We found that TRIB2 expression was elevated in CRC tissues compared to normal adjacent tissues and high TRIB2 expression indicated poor prognosis of CRC patients. Functionally, depletion of TRIB2 inhibited cancer cells proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest and promoted cellular senescence, whereas overexpression of TRIB2 accelerated cell growth, cell cycle progression and blocked cellular senescence. Further studies showed that TRIB2 physically interacted with AP4 and inhibited p21 expression through enhancing transcription activities of AP4. The rescue experiments indicated that silencing of AP4 abrogated the inhibition of cellular senescence induced by TRIB2 overexpression. CONCLUSION:These data demonstrate that TRIB2 suppresses cellular senescence through interaction with AP4 to down-regulate p21 expression. Therefore, TRIB2 could be a potential target for CRC treatment.
Project description:The gene encoding the transcription factor TFAP4/AP4 represents a direct target of the c-MYC oncoprotein. Here, we deleted Ap4 in ApcMin mice, a preclinical model of inherited colorectal cancer. Ap4 deficiency extends their average survival by 110 days and decreases the formation of intestinal adenomas and tumor-derived organoids. The effects of Ap4 deletion are presumably due to the reduced number of functional intestinal stem cells (ISCs) amenable to adenoma-initiating mutational events. Deletion of Ap4 also decreases the number of colonic stem cells and increases the number of Paneth cells. Expression profiling revealed that ISC signatures, as well as the Wnt/β-catenin and Notch signaling pathways are downregulated in Ap4-deficient adenomas and intestinal organoids. AP4-associated signatures are conserved between murine adenomas and human colorectal cancer samples. Our results establish Ap4 as rate-limiting mediator of adenoma initiation, as well as regulator of intestinal and colonic stem cell and Paneth cell homeostasis.
Project description:We identified 531 and 616 putative HIF-1α target sites by ChIP-Seq in the cancerous cell line DLD-1 and the non-cancerous cell line TIG-3, respectively. We also examined the positions and expression levels of transcriptional start sites (TSSs) in these cell lines using our TSS-Seq method. We observed that 121 and 48 genes in DLD-1 and TIG-3 cells, respectively, had HIF-1α binding sites in proximal regions of the previously reported TSSs that were up-regulated at the transcriptional level. In addition, 193 and 123 of the HIF-1α target sites, respectively, were located in proximal regions of previously uncharacterized TSSs, namely, TSSs of putative alternative promoters of protein-coding genes or promoters of putative non-protein-coding transcripts. The hypoxic response of DLD-1 cells was more significant than that of TIG-3 cells with respect to both the number of target sites and the degree of induced changes in transcript expression. The Nucleosome-Seq and ChIP-Seq analyses of histone modifications revealed that the chromatin formed an open structure in regions surrounding the HIF-1α binding sites, but this event occurred prior to the actual binding of HIF-1α. Different cellular histories may be encoded by chromatin structures and determine the activation of specific genes in response to hypoxic shock.The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11568-011-9150-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Project description:In the majority of human tumors, expression of the c-MYC oncogene becomes constitutive. Here, we report that c-MYC directly regulates the expression of AP4 via CACGTG motifs in the first intron of the AP4 gene. Induction of AP4 was required for c-MYC-mediated cell cycle reentry of anti-estrogen arrested breast cancer cells and mitogen-mediated repression of the CDK inhibitor p21. AP4 directly repressed p21 by occupying four CAGCTG motifs in the p21 promoter via its basic region. AP4 levels declined after DNA damage, and ectopic AP4 interfered with p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and sensitized cells to apoptosis induced by DNA damaging agents. AP4 expression blocked induction of p21 by TGF-beta in human keratinocytes and interfered with up-regulation of p21 and cell cycle arrest during monoblast differentiation. Notably, AP4 is specifically expressed in colonic progenitor and colorectal carcinoma cells. In conclusion, our results indicate that c-MYC employs AP4 to maintain cells in a proliferative, progenitor-like state.
Project description:The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor AP4/TFAP4/AP-4 is encoded by a c-MYC target gene and displays up-regulation concomitantly with c-MYC in colorectal cancer (CRC) and numerous other tumor types. Here a genome-wide characterization of AP4 DNA binding and mRNA expression was performed using a combination of microarray, genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation, next-generation sequencing, and bioinformatic analyses. Thereby, hundreds of induced and repressed AP4 target genes were identified. Besides many genes involved in the control of proliferation, the AP4 target genes included markers of stemness (LGR5 and CD44) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) such as SNAIL, E-cadherin/CDH1, OCLN, VIM, FN1, and the Claudins 1, 4, and 7. Accordingly, activation of AP4 induced EMT and enhanced migration and invasion of CRC cells. Conversely, down-regulation of AP4 resulted in mesenchymal-epithelial transition and inhibited migration and invasion. In addition, AP4 induction was required for EMT, migration, and invasion caused by ectopic expression of c-MYC. Inhibition of AP4 in CRC cells resulted in decreased lung metastasis in mice. Elevated AP4 expression in primary CRC significantly correlated with liver metastasis and poor patient survival. These findings imply AP4 as a new regulator of EMT that contributes to metastatic processes in CRC and presumably other carcinomas.
Project description:Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer mortality and morbidity worldwide. Previous studies indicate that the zinc finger-containing transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 5 (KLF5) positively regulates proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells and colorectal cancer cells. Importantly, inhibition of KLF5 expression in intestinal epithelial cells and colorectal cancer cells by pharmacologic or genetic means reduces their rate of proliferation. To identify additional and novel small molecules that inhibit KLF5 expression and thus colorectal cancer proliferation, we developed a reporter assay using colorectal cancer cell line (DLD-1) that stably expressed a luciferase reporter gene directed by 1,959 bp of the human KLF5 promoter upstream of the ATG start codon and performed a cell-based high-throughput screen with the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds that contains 1,280 biologically active compounds. The screen identified 8 potential inhibitors and 6 potential activators of the KLF5 promoter. Three potential inhibitors, wortmannin, AG17, and AG879, were further evaluated by secondary analyses. All three significantly reduced both KLF5 promoter-luciferase activity and protein level in DLD-1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner when compared with controls. They also significantly reduced the rate of proliferation of DLD-1 and two other colorectal cancer cell lines, HCT116 and HT29. Our results show the principle of using high-throughput screening to identify small-molecule compounds that modulate KLF5 activity and consequently inhibit colorectal cancer proliferation.
Project description:Ubiquitin specific peptidase 22 (USP22), a putative cancer stem cell marker, is overexpressed in liver metastases of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanism by which USP22 promotes CRC metastasis remains largely unknown. Here, we report that USP22 and AP4 are simultaneously overexpressed during TGF-?1-induced CRC cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). USP22 up-regulation enhances CRC cell migration and invasion and EMT-related marker and AP4 expression, but these effects are partly blocked by AP4 knockdown. In addition, USP22 binds to the promoter region of AP4 to activate its transcription. In vivo, elevated USP22 expression promotes CRC cell metastasis to the lungs in nude mice, as evidenced by the fact that CRC metastatic nodules stain deeply positive for USP22 and AP4. In human CRC tissues, the genes encoding USP22 and AP4 are overexpressed in metastatic liver lesions compared with primary cancer tissues, and their overexpression is significantly associated with poor CRC patient survival. These findings indicate that USP22 and AP4 may serve as prognostic markers for predicting the risk of developing distant metastases in CRC.
Project description:The pro-apoptotic proteins BAX and BAK are critical regulatory factors constituting the apoptosis machinery. Downregulated expression of BAX and BAK in human colorectal cancer lead to chemotherapeutic failure and poor survival rate in patients. In this study, isogenic DLD-1 colon cancer cells and the BAX and BAK double knockout counterpart were used as the cellular model to investigate the role of BAX/BAK-associated signaling network and the corresponding downstream effects in the development of drug resistance. Our data suggested that DLD-1 colon cancer cells with BAX/BAK double-knockout were selectively resistant to a panel of FDA-approved drugs (27 out of 66), including etoposide. PCR array analysis for the transcriptional profiling of genes related to human cancer drug resistance validated the altered level of 12 genes (3 upregulated and 9 downregulated) in DLD-1 colon cancer cells lack of BAX and BAK expression. Amongst these genes, XPC responsible for DNA repairment and cellular respiration demonstrated the highest tolerance towards etoposide treatment accompanying upregulated glycolysis as revealed by metabolic stress assay in DLD-1 colon cancer cells deficient with XPC. Collectively, our findings provide insight into the search of novel therapeutic strategies and pharmacological targets to against cancer drug resistance genetically associated with BAX, BAK, and XPC, for improving the therapy of colorectal cancer via the glycolytic pathway.