Project description:BACKGROUND:Plant and animal pathogenic fungus Cochliobolus lunatus cause great economic damages worldwide every year. C. lunatus displays an increased temperature dependent-virulence to a wide range of hosts. Nonetheless, this phenomenon is poorly understood due to lack of insights on the coordinated secretome weaponries produced by C. lunatus under heat-stress conditions on putative hosts. To understand the mechanism better, we dissected the secretome of C. lunatus interacting with potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) leaf at different temperature regimes. RESULTS:C. lunatus produced melanized colonizing hyphae in and on potato leaf, finely modulated the ambient pH as a function of temperature and secreted diverse set of proteins. Using two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-D) and mass spectrometry (MS) technology, we observed discrete secretomes at 20°C, 28°C and 38°C. A total of 21 differentially expressed peptide spots and 10 unique peptide spots (that did not align on the gels) matched with 28 unique protein models predicted from C. lunatus m118 v.2 genome peptides. Furthermore, C. lunatus secreted peptides via classical and non-classical pathways related to virulence, proteolysis, nucleic acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, heat stress, signal trafficking and some with unidentified catalytic domains. CONCLUSIONS:We have identified a set of 5 soluble candidate effectors of unknown function from C. lunatus secretome weaponries against potato crop at different temperature regimes. Our findings demonstrate that C. lunatus has a repertoire of signature secretome which mediates thermo-pathogenicity and share a leucine rich "CL[xxxx]LHM"-motif. Considering the rapidly evolving temperature dependent-virulence and host diversity of C. lunatus, this data will be useful for designing new protection strategies.
Project description:Lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus, is a crop legume that produces the cyanogenic glucosides linamarin and lotaustralin. In the legumes Lotus japonicus and Trifolium repens, the biosynthesis of these two ?-hydroxynitrile glucosides involves cytochrome P450 enzymes of the CYP79 and CYP736 families and a UDP-glucosyltransferase. Here, we identify CYP79D71 as the first enzyme of the pathway in P. lunatus, producing oximes from valine and isoleucine. A second CYP79 family member, CYP79D72, was shown to catalyze the formation of leucine-derived oximes, which act as volatile defense compounds in Phaseolus spp. The organization of the biosynthetic genes for cyanogenic glucosides in a gene cluster aided their identification in L. japonicus. In the available genome sequence of P. vulgaris, the gene orthologous to CYP79D71 is adjacent to a member of the CYP83 family. Although P. vulgaris is not cyanogenic, it does produce oximes as volatile defense compounds. We cloned the genes encoding two CYP83s (CYP83E46 and CYP83E47) and a UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT85K31) from P. lunatus, and these genes combined form a complete biosynthetic pathway for linamarin and lotaustralin in Lima bean. Within the genus Phaseolus, the occurrence of linamarin and lotaustralin as functional chemical defense compounds appears restricted to species belonging to the closely related Polystachios and Lunatus groups. A preexisting ability to produce volatile oximes and nitriles likely facilitated evolution of cyanogenesis within the Phaseolus genus.
Project description:We undertook an investigation to advance understanding of the host-range dynamics and biocontrol implications of Cochliobolus lunatus in the past decade. Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) farms were routinely surveyed for brown-to-black leaf spot disease caused by C. lunatus. A biphasic gene data set was assembled and databases were mined for reported hosts of C. lunatus in the last decade. The placement of five virulent strains of C. lunatus causing foliar necrosis of potato was studied with microscopic and phylogenetic tools. Analysis of morphology showed intraspecific variations in stromatic tissues among the virulent strains causing foliar necrosis of potato. A maximum likelihood inference based on GPDH locus separated C. lunatus strains into subclusters and revealed the emergence of unclustered strains. The evolving nutritional requirement of C. lunatus in the last decade is exhibited by the invasion of vertebrates, invertebrates, dicots, and monocots. Our results contribute towards a better understanding of the host-range dynamics of C. lunatus and provide useful implications on the threat posed to the environment when C. lunatus is used as a mycoherbicide.
Project description:The complete genome sequence of Bradyrhizobium icense LMTR 13T, a root nodule bacterium isolated from the legume Phaseolus lunatus, is reported here. The genome consists of a circular 8,322,773-bp chromosome which codes for a large and novel symbiotic island as well as genes putatively involved in soil and root colonization.
Project description:Biotic stresses induced by herbivores result in diverse physiological changes in plants. In the interaction between the Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) and the herbivore Spodoptera littoralis, the earliest event induced by feeding on leaves is the depolarization of the plasma membrane potential (Vm), which is the results of both mechanical damage and insect oral secretions (OS). Although this herbivore-induced Vm depolarization depends on a calcium-dependent opening of potassium channels, the attacked leaf remains depolarized for an extended period, which cannot be explained by the sole action of potassium channels. Here we show that the plasma membrane H+-ATPase of P. lunatus leaves is strongly inhibited by S. littoralis OS. Inhibition of the H+-ATPase was also found in plasma membranes purified from leaf sections located distally from the application zone of OS, thus suggesting a long-distance transport of a signaling molecule(s). S. littoralis' OS did not influence the amount of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase, whereas the levels of membrane-bound 14-3-3 proteins were significantly decreased in membranes purified from treated leaves. Furthermore, OS strongly reduced the in vitro interaction between P. lunatus H+-ATPase and 14-3-3 proteins. The results of this work demonstrate that inhibition of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase is a key component of the S. littoralis OS mechanism leading to an enduring Vm depolarization in P. lunatus wounded leaves.
Project description:Hydroxylation of steroids has acquired special relevance for the pharmaceutical industries. Particularly, the 11?-hydroxylation of steroids is a reaction of biotechnological importance currently carried out at industrial scale by the fungus Cochliobolus lunatus. In this work, we have identified the genes encoding the cytochrome CYP103168 and the reductase CPR64795 of C. lunatus responsible for the 11?-hydroxylase activity in this fungus, which is the key step for the preparative synthesis of cortisol in industry. A recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum strain harbouring a plasmid expressing both genes forming a synthetic bacterial operon was able to 11?-hydroxylate several steroids as substrates. This is a new example to show that the industrial strain C. glutamicum can be used as a suitable chassis to perform steroid biotransformation expressing eukaryotic cytochromes.
Project description:The zoanthid-derived fungus Cochliobolus lunatus (TA26-46) has been proven to be a source of bioactive 14-membered resorcylic acid lactones (RALs). In the present study, chemical epigenetic manipulation was applied to this fungal strain with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor resulting in the significant changes of the secondary metabolites. Cultivation of C. lunatus (TA26-46) with 10 ?M 5-azacytidine in Czapek-Dox liquid medium led to the isolation of new types of metabolites, including two ?-pyrones, cochliobopyrones A (1) and B (2), along with three isocoumarins (3-5) and one chromone (6). The planar structures of the new compounds (1-2) were elucidated by comprehensive analyses of NMR and HRESIMS data. Their challenging relative configurations were established by a combination of acetonide reaction, coupling constants and NOESY correlations analysis, and DP4+ probability calculation. Their absolute configurations were determined by comparing with the ECD calculation data of the fragment molecules, 6-(1,2-dihydroxypropyl)-4-methoxy-2H-pyran-2-ones. It is the first time to obtain ?-pyrone compounds with the epoxy ring or bromine atom on the seven-numbered side chain. It could be concluded that chemical epigenetic agents could induce C. lunatus to produce new types of secondary metabolites differing from its original products (RALs).