Project description:Here we present the genome of strain Exiguobacterium sp. AT1b, a thermophilic member of the genus Exiguobacterium whose representatives were isolated from various environments along a thermal and physicochemical gradient. This genome was sequenced to be a comparative resource for the study of thermal adaptation with a psychroactive representative of the genus, Exiguobacterium sibiricum strain 255-15, that was previously sequenced by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Joint Genome Institute (JGI) (http://genome.ornl.gov/microbial/exig/).
Project description:Exiguobacterium sp. strain BMC-KP was isolated as part of a student environmental sampling project at Bryn Mawr College, PA. Sequencing of bacterial DNA assembled a 3.32-Mb draft genome. Analysis suggests the presence of genes for tolerance to cold and toxic metals, broad carbohydrate metabolism, and genes derived from phage.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chloronitrophenols (CNPs) are widely used in the synthesis of dyes, drugs and pesticides, and constitute a major group of environmental pollutants. 4-Chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C2NP) is an isomer of CNPs that has been detected in various industrial effluents. A number of physicochemical methods have been used for treatment of wastewater containing 4C2NP. These methods are not as effective as microbial degradation, however. RESULTS:A 4C2NP-degrading bacterium, Exiguobacterium sp. PMA, which uses 4C2NP as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated from a chemically-contaminated site in India. Exiguobacterium sp. PMA degraded 4C2NP with the release of stoichiometeric amounts of chloride and ammonium ions. The effects of different substrate concentrations and various inoculum sizes on degradation of 4C2NP were investigated. Exiguobacterium sp. PMA degraded 4C2NP up to a concentration of 0.6 mM. High performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry identified 4-chloro-2-aminophenol (4C2AP) and 2-aminophenol (2AP) as possible metabolites of the 4C2NP degradation pathway. The crude extract of 4C2NP-induced PMA cells contained enzymatic activity for 4C2NP reductase and 4C2AP dehalogenase, suggesting the involvement of these enzymes in the degradation of 4C2NP. Microcosm studies using sterile and non-sterile soils spiked with 4C2NP were carried out to monitor the bioremediation potential of Exiguobacterium sp. PMA. The bioremediation of 4C2NP by Exiguobacterium sp. PMA was faster in non-sterilized soil than sterilized soil. CONCLUSIONS:Our studies indicate that Exiguobacterium sp. PMA may be useful for the bioremediation of 4C2NP-contaminated sites. This is the first report of (i) the formation of 2AP in the 4C2NP degradation pathway by any bacterium and (iii) the bioremediation of 4C2NP by any bacterium.
Project description:We report the complete genome sequence of Exiguobacterium sp. strain MH3, isolated from the rhizosphere of duckweed. The genome assembly is 3.16 Mb, with a G+C content of 47.24%, and it may provide useful information about plant-microbe interactions and the genetic basis for the tolerance of the strain to various environmental stresses.
Project description:Bacterial species belonging to the genus Exiguobacterium are facultative anaerobic, non-spore-forming, Gram-positive bacilli, and rarely associated with human infections. Herein, we reported the first case of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and bacteremia due to Exiguobacterium spp. in China.An adult male with severe CAP was hospitalized. The pathogen was isolated from his bloodstream and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid. The correct identification of the micro-organism was achieved using 16S rRNA sequencing, and its antibiotic susceptibility test was performed by microdilution method. The Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) was used to characterize its genetic features and to elucidate its potential pathogenic mechanisms. Furthermore, its genome sequence was also compared with those of 3 publicly-available Exiguobacterium strains. A PubMed search was performed for further understanding the features of Exiguobacterium infections. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that the strain GX59 was most closely related to Exiguobacterium AT1b (99.7%). The genome of GX59 was 2,727,929 bp in size, harbouring 2855 putative protein-coding genes, 5 rRNA operons, 37 tRNA genes and 1 tmRNA. The multiple genome comparison of 4 Exiguobacterium strains demonstrated that Exiguobacterium contained 37 genes of secretion systems, including sec, tat, FEA, Type IV Pili and competence-related DNA transformation transporter (Com). Virulence factors of the micro-organism included tlyC, NprR, MCP, Dam, which might play a critical role in causing lethal infection.The study highlighted the potential pathogenicity of the genus Exiguobacterium for its unique genes encoding various virulence factors and those associated with antibiotic resistance, therefore, its clinical significance should be valued.
Project description:A gram positive, extreme haloalkaliphilic, radioresistant bacterium was isolated from mangrove region of Kerala (India) which was characterized as Exiguobacterium sp. HKG-126 using morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular characterization. Present investigation was undertaken to examine Exiguobacterium sp. as a potential source of broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and enhancement in this activity was observed due to cross-species/cross-genera induction and also in response to high dose of gamma (?) irradiation. Individual studies on the antimicrobial activity of all the co-cultivated bacterial strains before and after mixed culture fermentation, showed excellent enhancement in antimicrobial activity of Exiguobacterium sp. against a variety of clinical pathogens. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing existence of an extremely high radioresistant strain of (up to 15 kGy) Exiguobacterium sp.
Project description:Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Exiguobacterium sp. strain N4-1P, a psychrophilic bacterium that produces bioemulsifier, isolated for the first time from petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated sediment samples from shoreline Newfoundland, Canada. Many strains of the genus Exiguobacterium are extremophiles and have properties of biotechnological interest.
Project description:Exiguobacterium sp. strain S17 is a moderately halotolerant, arsenic-resistant bacterium that was isolated from Laguna Socompa stromatolites in the Argentinian Puna. The draft genome sequence suggests potent enzyme candidates that are essential for survival under multiple environmental extreme conditions, such as high levels of UV radiation, elevated salinity, and the presence of critical arsenic concentrations.
Project description:Gram-positive bacteria of the genus Exiguobacterium have been repeatedly isolated from Siberian permafrost ranging in age from 20,000 to 2 to 3 million years and have been sporadically recovered from markedly diverse habitats, including microbial mats in Lake Fryxell (Antarctic), surface water, and food-processing environments. However, there is currently no information on genomic diversity of this microorganism or on the physiological strategies that have allowed its survival under prolonged freezing in the permafrost. Analysis of the genome sequence of the most ancient available Exiguobacterium isolate (Exiguobacterium sp. strain 255-15, from 2 to 3 million-year-old Siberian permafrost) revealed numerous putative transposase sequences, primarily of the IS200/IS605, IS30, and IS3 families, with four transposase families identified. Several of the transposase genes appeared to be part of insertion sequences. Southern blots with different transposase probes yielded high-resolution genomic fingerprints which differentiated the different permafrost isolates from each other and from the Exiguobacterium spp. type strains which have been derived from diverse surface habitats. Each of the Exiguobacterium sp. strain 255-15 transposases that were used as probes had highly conserved homologs in the genome of other Exiguobacterium strains, both from permafrost and from modern sites. These findings suggest that, prior to their entrapment in permafrost, Exiguobacterium isolates had acquired transposases and that conserved transposases are present in Exiguobacterium spp., which now can be isolated from various modern surface habitats.
Project description:A Gram-positive marine bacterium, Exiguobacterium sp. SBH81, was isolated as a hydrophilic organic-solvent tolerant bacterium, and exhibited high tolerance to various types of toxic hydrophilic organic solvents, including acetonitrile, at relatively high concentrations (up to 6% [v/v]) under the growing conditions. Investigation of its tolerance mechanisms illustrated that it does not rely on solvent inactivation processes or modification of cell surface characteristics, but rather, increase of the cell size lowers solvent partitioning into cells and the extrusion of solvents through the efflux system. A test using efflux pump inhibitors suggested that secondary transporters, i.e. resistance nodulation cell division (RND) and the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family, are involved in acetonitrile tolerance in this strain. In addition, its acetonitrile tolerance ability could be stably and significantly enhanced by repetitive growth in the presence of toxic acetonitrile. The marked acetonitrile tolerance of Exiguobacterium sp. SBH81 indicates its potential use as a host for biotechnological fermentation processes as well as bioremediation.