Project description:Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) produces Bacteroides fragilis toxin (BFT), which is associated with acute diarrheal, inflammatory bowel disease, and colorectal cancer (CRC). In experimental models, ETBF has been shown to contribute to colon carcinogenesis. The present study was conducted to investigate mucosal colonization of ETBF in the colon to find a possible association between the presence of ETBF and precancerous and cancerous lesions. The mucosal biopsies of involved sites were obtained from 68 patients with precancerous and cancerous lesions and 52 healthy controls (HC). The samples were cultured on Bacteroides Bile Esculin agar. Then, specific primers were designed to detect B. fragilis and bft gene using quantitative real-time PCR, and the possible links of ETBF with clinicopathological characteristics was evaluated. Also real-time PCR was performed to detect the bft gene subtypes. Bacteroides fragilis was detected in 51% of the patients and 48% of HCs cultures. The 16SrRNA gene was found to be present in 63 and 81% of the patients and HCs' samples, respectively. Moreover, the bft gene was detected in 47 and 3.8% of the patients and HCs, respectively. Also, B. fragilis was significantly more abundant in the patients' samples compared to those of HCs. In the patient group, higher odds ratio (OR) of ETBF was significantly associated with serrated lesions and adenoma with low-grade dysplasia. The bft1 gene was the most prevalent subtype of bft gene, followed by the bft2 gene. This was the first study in Iran to demonstrate increased positivity of ETBF in patients with precancerous and cancerous lesions. In this study, the bft gene was found to be associated with CRC, especially in the patients with precancerous lesions and initial carcinogenic lesions. Moreover, the results suggest that mucosal BFT exposure is common and could be a risk factor and a screening marker for developing CRC.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) produces the Bacteroides fragilis toxin, which has been associated with acute diarrheal disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and colorectal cancer (CRC). ETBF induces colon carcinogenesis in experimental models. Previous human studies have demonstrated frequent asymptomatic fecal colonization with ETBF, but no study has investigated mucosal colonization that is expected to impact colon carcinogenesis.<h4>Methods</h4>We compared the presence of the bft gene in mucosal samples from colorectal neoplasia patients (cases, n = 49) to a control group undergoing outpatient colonoscopy for CRC screening or diagnostic workup (controls, n = 49). Single bacterial colonies isolated anaerobically from mucosal colon tissue were tested for the bft gene with touch-down polymerase chain reaction.<h4>Results</h4>The mucosa of cases was significantly more often bft-positive on left (85.7%) and right (91.7%) tumor and/or paired normal tissues compared with left and right control biopsies (53.1%; P = .033 and 55.5%; P = .04, respectively). Detection of bft was concordant in most paired mucosal samples from individual cases or controls (75% cases; 67% controls). There was a trend toward increased bft positivity in mucosa from late- vs early-stage CRC patients (100% vs 72.7%, respectively; P = .093). In contrast to ETBF diarrheal disease where bft-1 detection dominates, bft-2 was the most frequent toxin isotype identified in both cases and controls, whereas multiple bft isotypes were detected more frequently in cases (P ? .02).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The bft gene is associated with colorectal neoplasia, especially in late-stage CRC. Our results suggest that mucosal bft exposure is common and may be a risk factor for developing CRC.
Project description:Bacteroides fragilis is an extensively studied anaerobic bacterium comprising the normal flora of the human gut. B. fragilis is known to be one of the most commonly isolated species from clinical samples and has been shown to cause a wide range of pathologies in humans [1, 2]. As an opportunistic pathogen B. fragilis can cause abscess formation and bacteremia . Additionally in its enterotoxigenic form, B. fragilis is a known cause of diarrheal illness, is associated with inflammatory bowel disease, and has been recently characterized in patients with colon cancer [3 - 5]. As research in the field of the gut microbiome continues to expand at an ever increasing rate due to advances in the availability of next generation sequencing and analysis tools it is important to outline various molecular methods that can be employed in quickly detecting and isolating relevant strains of B. fragilis. This review outlines methods that are routinely employed in the isolation and detection of B. fragilis, with an emphasis on characterizing enterotoxigenic B. fragilis (ETBF) strains.
Project description:Pro-carcinogenic bacteria have the potential to initiate and/or promote colon cancer, in part via immune mechanisms that are incompletely understood. Using ApcMin mice colonized with the human pathobiont enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) as a model of microbe-induced colon tumorigenesis, we show that the Bacteroides fragilis toxin (BFT) triggers a pro-carcinogenic, multi-step inflammatory cascade requiring IL-17R, NF-?B, and Stat3 signaling in colonic epithelial cells (CECs). Although necessary, Stat3 activation in CECs is not sufficient to trigger ETBF colon tumorigenesis. Notably, IL-17-dependent NF-?B activation in CECs induces a proximal to distal mucosal gradient of C-X-C chemokines, including CXCL1, that mediates the recruitment of CXCR2-expressing polymorphonuclear immature myeloid cells with parallel onset of ETBF-mediated distal colon tumorigenesis. Thus, BFT induces a pro-carcinogenic signaling relay from the CEC to a mucosal Th17 response that results in selective NF-?B activation in distal colon CECs, which collectively triggers myeloid-cell-dependent distal colon tumorigenesis.