Project description:Brackish water lake is the most extraordinary reservoir for bacterial community with an adaptability of tolerance to saline stress. In the present study, metagenomic approach was implemented utilising 454-pyrosequencing platform to gain deeper insights into the bacterial diversity profile of the soil sediment of Chilika Lake, Odisha, India. Metagenome contained 68,150 sequences with 31,896,430 bp and 56.79% G + C content. Metagenome sequences data are now available at NCBI under the Sequence Read Archive (SRA) database with accession no. SRX753382. Bacterial community metagenome sequences were analysed by MG-RAST server representing the presence of 16,212 species belonging to 45 different phyla. The dominating phyla were Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Planctomycetes. The analysis of bacterial community datasets obtained from two different saline soil sediments revealed significant differences in bacterial community composition and diversity value providing better understanding of the ecosystem dynamics of Chilika Lake.
Project description:The Lake Bolshie Hruslomeny is located on the shores of the Kandalaksha Bay of the White Sea, North European Russia. This lake, formed from the sea bay and still retaining the subsurface connection with the sea, is meromictic, with a fresh oxygenated upper layer and an anoxic brackish hypolimnion with high concentrations of methane and hydrogen sulphide. To characterize the microbial communities involved in the carbon and sulfur cycles in the lake, we sequenced the metagenome of a water sample collected at the chemocline level. At the phylum level, Chlorobi, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were the most numerous groups. The obtained data will help investigate the diversity and ecological role of the microbial community in the Lake Bolshie Hruslomeny and provide insight into the biogeochemical processes in subarctic lakes. The raw sequencing data is available from the NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA) database under the BioProject PRJNA503531.
Project description:The Baltic Sea is one of the world's largest brackish water bodies and is characterised by pronounced physicochemical gradients where microbes are the main biogeochemical catalysts. Meta-omic methods provide rich information on the composition of, and activities within, microbial ecosystems, but are computationally heavy to perform. We here present the Baltic Sea Reference Metagenome (BARM), complete with annotated genes to facilitate further studies with much less computational effort. The assembly is constructed using 2.6 billion metagenomic reads from 81 water samples, spanning both spatial and temporal dimensions, and contains 6.8 million genes that have been annotated for function and taxonomy. The assembly is useful as a reference, facilitating taxonomic and functional annotation of additional samples by simply mapping their reads against the assembly. This capability is demonstrated by the successful mapping and annotation of 24 external samples. In addition, we present a public web interface, BalticMicrobeDB, for interactive exploratory analysis of the dataset.
Project description:Chitin is an abundant biopolymer whose degradation is mediated primarily by bacterial chitinases. We developed a degenerate PCR primer set to amplify a approximately 900-bp fragment of family 18, group I chitinase genes and used it to retrieve these gene fragments from environmental samples. Clone libraries of presumptive chitinase genes were created for nine water and six sediment samples from 10 aquatic environments including freshwater and saline lakes, estuarine water and sediments, and the central Arctic Ocean. Putative chitinase sequences were also retrieved from the Sargasso Sea metagenome sequence database. We were unable to obtain PCR product with these primers from an alkaline, hypersaline lake (Mono Lake, California). In total, 108 partial chitinase gene sequences were analyzed, with a minimum of 5 and a maximum of 13 chitinase sequences obtained from each library. All chitinase sequences were novel compared to previously identified sequences. Intralibrary sequence diversity was low, while we found significant differences between libraries from different water column samples and between water column and sediment samples. However, identical sequences were retrieved from samples collected at widely distributed locations that did not necessarily represent similar environments, suggesting homogeneity of chitinoclastic communities between some environments.
Project description:Lake Vostok, the 7(th) largest (by volume) and 4(th) deepest lake on Earth, is covered by more than 3,700 m of ice, making it the largest subglacial lake known. The combination of cold, heat (from possible hydrothermal activity), pressure (from the overriding glacier), limited nutrients and complete darkness presents extreme challenges to life. Here, we report metagenomic/metatranscriptomic sequence analyses from four accretion ice sections from the Vostok 5G ice core. Two sections accreted in the vicinity of an embayment on the southwestern end of the lake, and the other two represented part of the southern main basin. We obtained 3,507 unique gene sequences from concentrates of 500 ml of 0.22 µm-filtered accretion ice meltwater. Taxonomic classifications (to genus and/or species) were possible for 1,623 of the sequences. Species determinations in combination with mRNA gene sequence results allowed deduction of the metabolic pathways represented in the accretion ice and, by extension, in the lake. Approximately 94% of the sequences were from Bacteria and 6% were from Eukarya. Only two sequences were from Archaea. In general, the taxa were similar to organisms previously described from lakes, brackish water, marine environments, soil, glaciers, ice, lake sediments, deep-sea sediments, deep-sea thermal vents, animals and plants. Sequences from aerobic, anaerobic, psychrophilic, thermophilic, halophilic, alkaliphilic, acidophilic, desiccation-resistant, autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms were present, including a number from multicellular eukaryotes.
Project description:We present a metagenomic study of Lake Baikal (East Siberia). Two samples obtained from the water column under the ice cover (5 and 20 m deep) in March 2016 have been deep sequenced and the reads assembled to generate metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) that are representative of the microbes living in this special environment. Compared with freshwater bodies studied around the world, Lake Baikal had an unusually high fraction of Verrucomicrobia Other groups, such as Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, were in proportions similar to those found in other lakes. The genomes (and probably cells) tended to be small, presumably reflecting the extremely oligotrophic and cold prevalent conditions. Baikal microbes are novel lineages recruiting very little from other water bodies and are distantly related to other freshwater microbes. Despite their novelty, they showed the closest relationship to genomes discovered by similar approaches from other freshwater lakes and reservoirs. Some of them were particularly similar to MAGs from the Baltic Sea, which, although it is brackish, connected to the ocean, and much more eutrophic, has similar climatological conditions. Many of the microbes contained rhodopsin genes, indicating that, in spite of the decreased light penetration allowed by the thick ice/snow cover, photoheterotrophy could be widespread in the water column, either because enough light penetrates or because the microbes are already adapted to the summer ice-less conditions. We have found a freshwater SAR11 subtype I/II representative showing striking synteny with Pelagibacterubique strains, as well as a phage infecting the widespread freshwater bacterium PolynucleobacterIMPORTANCE Despite the increasing number of metagenomic studies on different freshwater bodies, there is still a missing component in oligotrophic cold lakes suffering from long seasonal frozen cycles. Here, we describe microbial genomes from metagenomic assemblies that appear in the upper water column of Lake Baikal, the largest and deepest freshwater body on Earth. This lake is frozen from January to May, which generates conditions that include an inverted temperature gradient (colder up), decrease in light penetration due to ice, and, especially, snow cover, and oligotrophic conditions more similar to the open-ocean and high-altitude lakes than to other freshwater or brackish systems. As could be expected, most reconstructed genomes are novel lineages distantly related to others in cold environments, like the Baltic Sea and other freshwater lakes. Among them, there was a broad set of streamlined microbes with small genomes/intergenic spacers, including a new nonmarine Pelagibacter-like (subtype I/II) genome.
Project description:Transcripts of the gill epithelium from three different stocks of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) migrating from freshwater river to lake (Saimaa stock, SS), brackish water (Neva stock, NS) or seawater (Teno stock, TS) were compared at three successive developmental stages (parr, smolt and postsmolt) using the 16K GRASP cDNA microarray platform.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Representatives of the phylum Chloroflexi, though reportedly highly abundant in the extensive deep water habitats of both marine (SAR202 up to 30% of total prokaryotes) and freshwater (CL500-11 up to 26% of total prokaryotes), remain uncultivated and uncharacterized. There are few metagenomic studies on marine Chloroflexi representatives, while the pelagic freshwater Chloroflexi community is largely unknown except for a single metagenome-assembled genome of CL500-11. RESULTS:Here, we provide the first extensive examination of the community composition of this cosmopolitan phylum in a range of pelagic habitats (176 datasets) and highlight the impact of salinity and depth on their phylogenomic composition. Reconstructed genomes (53 in total) provide a perspective on the phylogeny, metabolism, and distribution of three novel classes and two family-level taxa within the phylum Chloroflexi. We unraveled a remarkable genomic diversity of pelagic freshwater Chloroflexi representatives that thrive not only in the hypolimnion as previously suspected, but also in the epilimnion. Our results suggest that the lake hypolimnion provides a globally stable habitat reflected in lower species diversity among hypolimnion-specific CL500-11 and TK10 clusters in distantly related lakes compared to a higher species diversity of the epilimnion-specific SL56 cluster. Cell volume analyses show that the CL500-11 are among the largest prokaryotic cells in the water column of deep lakes and with a biomass to abundance ratio of two they significantly contribute to the deep lake carbon flow. Metabolic insights indicate participation of JG30-KF-CM66 representatives in the global cobalamin production via cobinamide to cobalamin salvage pathway. CONCLUSIONS:Extending phylogenomic comparisons to brackish and marine habitats suggests salinity as the major influencer of the community composition of the deep-dwelling Chloroflexi in marine (SAR202) and freshwater (CL500-11) habitats as both counterparts thrive in intermediate brackish salinity; however, freshwater habitats harbor the most phylogenetically diverse community of pelagic Chloroflexi representatives that reside both in epi- and hypolimnion.
Project description:Bacterial diversity and archaeal diversity in metagenome of the Lonar soda lake sediment were assessed by bacterial tag-encoded FLX amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP). Metagenome comprised 5093 sequences with 2,531,282 bp and 53 ± 2% G + C content. Metagenome sequence data are available at NCBI under the Bioproject database with accession no. PRJNA218849. Metagenome sequence represented the presence of 83.1% bacterial and 10.5% archaeal origin. A total of 14 different bacteria demonstrating 57 species were recorded with dominating species like Coxiella burnetii (17%), Fibrobacter intestinalis (12%) and Candidatus Cloacamonas acidaminovorans (11%). Occurrence of two archaeal phyla representing 24 species, among them Methanosaeta harundinacea (35%), Methanoculleus chikugoensis (12%) and Methanolinea tarda (11%) were dominating species. Significant presence of 11% sequences as an unclassified indicated the possibilities for unknown novel prokaryotes from the metagenome.