Project description:Acquired vancomycin resistance in Gram-positive anaerobes has been reported only in Australia and Canada from rare vanB-positive stool samples in the absence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE). We report the emergence of VanB-type resistance in Clostridium clostridioforme and Atopobium minutum involved in human infections in France.
Project description:One hundred eight isolates were previously identified in our laboratory as Clostridium clostridioforme by colonial and cellular morphology, as well as biochemical tests. Recent studies have indicated that there are actually three different species in this C. clostridioforme group: C. hathewayi, C. bolteae, and C. clostridioforme. Our isolates were reexamined using biochemical and enzymatic tests and molecular methods. Forty-six isolates were reidentified as C. hathewayi, 34 as C. bolteae, five as C. clostridioforme, and one as C. symbiosum. Twenty-two strains were identified only to the genus level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and although they are microscopically and morphologically indistinguishable from the above-mentioned three species, they are phenotypically different and only 96 to 98% similar by gene sequencing. Twenty of these 22 strains were indole positive and formed two novel species. We propose Clostridium aldenense sp. nov. and Clostridium citroniae sp. nov. as names for these new species. They are differentiated from each other by results for raffinose, rhamnose, alpha-galactosidase, and beta-galactosidase: positive, negative, positive, and positive, respectively, for the former species and negative, positive, negative, and negative, respectively, for the latter species. The type strain of C. aldenense is RMA 9741 (ATCC BAA-1318; CCUG 52204), and the type strain of C. citroniae is RMA 16102 (ATCC BAA-1317; CCUG 52203).