Project description:Soil transplant serves as a proxy to simulate climate change in realistic climate regimes. Here, we assessed the effects of climate warming and cooling on soil microbial communities, which are key drivers in Earth’s biogeochemical cycles, four years after soil transplant over large transects from northern (N site) to central (NC site) and southern China (NS site) and vice versa. Four years after soil transplant, soil nitrogen components, microbial biomass, community phylogenetic and functional structures were altered. Microbial functional diversity, measured by a metagenomic tool named GeoChip, and phylogenetic diversity are increased with temperature, while microbial biomass were similar or decreased. Nevertheless, the effects of climate change was overridden by maize cropping, underscoring the need to disentangle them in research. Mantel tests and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) demonstrated that vegetation, climatic factors (e.g., temperature and precipitation), soil nitrogen components and CO2 efflux were significantly correlated to the microbial community composition. Further investigation unveiled strong correlations between carbon cycling genes and CO2 efflux in bare soil but not cropped soil, and between nitrogen cycling genes and nitrification, which provides mechanistic understanding of these microbe-mediated processes and empowers an interesting possibility of incorporating bacterial gene abundance in greenhouse gas emission modeling. Fifty four samples were collected from three soil types (Phaeozem,Cambisol,Acrisol) in three sites (Hailun, Fengqiu and Yingtan) along a latitude with reciprocal transplant; Both with and without maize cropping in each site; Three replicates in every treatments.
Project description:Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are common pollutants in soil, have negative effects on soil ecosystems, and are potentially carcinogenic. The Springtail (Collembola) Folsomia candida is often used as an indicator species for soil toxicity. Here we report a toxicogenomic study that translates the ecological effects of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon phenanthrene in soil to the early transcriptomic responses in Folsomia candida. Microarrays were used to examine two different exposure concentrations of phenanthrene, namely the EC10 (24.95 mg kg-1 soil) and EC50 (45.80 mg kg-1 soil) on reproduction of this springtail, which evoked 405 and 251 differentially expressed transcripts, respectively. Fifty transcripts were differential in response to either concentration. Many transcripts encoding xenobiotic detoxification and biotransformation enzymes (phases I, II, and III) were upregulated in response to either concentration. Furthermore, indications of general and oxidative stress were found in response to phenanthrene. Chitin metabolism appeared to be disrupted particularly at the low concentration, and protein translation appeared suppressed at the high concentration of phenanthrene; most likely in order to reallocate energy budgets for the detoxification process. Finally, an immune response was evoked especially in response to the high effect concentration, which was also described in a previous transcriptomic study using the same effect concentration (EC50) of cadmium. Our study provides new insights in the molecular mode of action of the important polluting class of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil animals. Furthermore, we present a fast, sensitive, and specific soil toxicity test which enhances traditional tests and may help to improve current environmental risk assessments and monitoring of potentially polluted sites. Overall design: Folsomia candida was exposed to phenanthrene spiked soil or untreated (reference/control) soil for 2 days. Two different concentrations of phenanthrene were used, 24.95 and 45.80 mg/kg soil which represent the EC10 and EC50 on reproduction, respectively. For each concentration treatment 4 biological replicates were used, replicate samples consisted of total RNA extracted from ~30 animals exposed in the same jar to either reference or phenanthrene spiked soil. Phenanthrene treated samples were always hybridized to reference samples in an evenly distributed dye-swap manner, which resulted in total in 8 hybridizations of 16 samples.
Project description:We investigated the toxicity of soil samples derived from a former municipal landfill site in the South of the Netherlands, where a bioremediation project is running aiming at reusing the site for recreation. Both an organic soil extract and the original soil sample was investigated using the ISO standardised Folsomia soil ecotoxicological testing and gene expression analysis. The 28 day survival/reproduction test revealed that the ecologically more relevant original soil sample was more toxic than the organic soil extract. Microarray analysis showed that the more toxic soil samples induced gene regulatory changes in twice as less genes compared to the soil extract. Consequently gene regulatory changes were highly dependent on sample type, and were to a lesser extent caused by exposure level. An important biological process shared among the two sample types was the detoxification pathway for xenobiotics (biotransformation I, II and III) suggesting a link between compound type and observed adverse effects. Finally, we were able to retrieve a selected group of genes that show highly significant dose-dependent gene expression and thus were tightly linked with adverse effects on reproduction. Expression of four cytochrome P450 genes showed highest correlation values with reproduction, and maybe promising genetic markers for soil quality. However, a more elaborate set of environmental soil samples is needed to validate the correlation between gene expression induction and adverse phenotypic effects. paired reference design was used testing animals exposed to two concentrations of an environemntal soil sample and two concentrations of the subsequent soil extract. 4 biological replicates per condition containing 25 grams of soil and 10 23day-old animals per replicate.
Project description:Identifying the genetic basis for natural selection is a fundamental research goal, and particularly significant for soil fungi because of their central role in ecosystem functioning. Here, we identify rapid evolutionary processes in the plant root colonizing insect pathogen Metarhizium robertsii. While adapting to a new soil community, expression of TATA box containing cell wall and stress response genes evolved at an accelerated rate, whereas virulence determinants, transposons and chromosome structure were unaltered. The survival of diversified field isolates was increased, confirming that the mutations were adaptive, and we further show that large populations of Metarhizium are principally maintained by associations with plant roots rather than insect populations. These results provide a mechanistic basis for understanding mutational and selective effects on soil microbes. Overall design: A loop design was used to compare differential gene expression between the original input strain Metarhizium robertsii ARSEF 2575 (designated as Control) and 5 field strains (designated as Re01, Re02, Re03, Re04 and Re05). The control samples contained samples of input strain Mr2575 were compared to themselves to establish a base-line for natural variation in gene expression and standardize the data and confirm there were no technical issues with the design. These design generated seven-condition experiment: Control vs. Control (five biological replicates, no dye swapping), Control vs. Re01 (three biological replicates, dye swapping), Re01 vs.Re02 (three biological replicates, dye swapping), Re02 vs. Re03 (three biological replicates, dye swapping), Re03 vs. Re04 (three biological replicates, dye swapping), Re04 vs. Re05 (three biological replicates, dye swapping) and Re05 vs. Control (three biological replicates, no dye swapping). Biological replicates were independently grown and harvested. Three replicates per array (in-slide replicates). Dye-swap was performed as specified in parenthesis.