Project description:Strains of the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae are commonly found in the phylosphere and are able to infect a number of agriculturally important crops. Here, we report a high-quality draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B301D-R, isolated from pears, which is a model strain for phytotoxin research in P. syringae.
Project description:Pseudomonas syringae pv. panici is a phytopathogenic bacterium causing brown stripe disease in economically important crops worldwide. Here, we announce the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. panici LMG2367 to provide further valuable insights for comparison of the pathovars among species Pseudomonas syringae.
Project description:We report here the annotated draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain ALF3, isolated in Wyoming. A comparison of this genome sequence with those of closely related strains of P. syringae adapted to other hosts will facilitate research into interactions between this pathogen and alfalfa.
Project description:Pseudomonas syringae pv. lapsa is a pathovar of Pseudomonas syringae that can infect wheat. The complete genome of P. syringae pv. lapsa strain ATCC 10859 contains a 5,918,899-bp circular chromosome with 4,973 coding sequences, 16 rRNAs, 69 tRNAs, and an average GC content of 59.13%. The analysis of this genome revealed several gene clusters that are related to pathogenesis and virulence.
Project description:To study the role of type III-secreted effectors in the host adaptation of the tobacco (Nicotiana sp.) pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci, a selection of seven strains was first characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) to determine their phylogenetic affinity. MLST revealed that all strains represented a tight phylogenetic group and that the most closely related strain with a completely sequenced genome was the bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) pathogen P. syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448A. Using primers designed to 21 P. syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448A effector genes, it was determined that P. syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448A shared at least 10 effectors with all tested P. syringae pv. tabaci strains. Six of the 11 effectors that failed to amplify from P. syringae pv. tabaci strains were individually expressed in one P. syringae pv. tabaci strain. Although five effectors had no effect on phenotype, growth in planta and disease severity of the transgenic P. syringae pv. tabaci expressing hopQ1-1(Pph1448A) were significantly increased in bean, but reduced in tobacco. We conclude that hopQ1-1 has been retained in P. syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448A, as this effector suppresses immunity in bean, whereas hopQ1-1 is missing from P. syringae pv. tabaci strains because it triggers defences in Nicotiana spp. This provides evidence that fine-tuning effector repertoires during host adaptation lead to a concomitant reduction in virulence in non-host species.
Project description:Nitrilase enzymes catalyse the hydrolysis of nitrile compounds to the corresponding carboxylic acid and ammonia, and have been identified in plants, bacteria and fungi. There is mounting evidence to support a role for nitrilases in plant-microbe interactions, but the activity of these enzymes in plant pathogenic bacteria remains unexplored. The genomes of the plant pathogenic bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 contain nitrilase genes with high similarity to characterized bacterial arylacetonitrilases. In this study, we show that the nitrilase of P. syringae pv. syringae B728a is an arylacetonitrilase, which is capable of hydrolysing indole-3-acetonitrile to the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid, and allows P. syringae pv. syringae B728a to use indole-3-acetonitrile as a nitrogen source. This enzyme may represent an additional mechanism for indole-3-acetic acid biosynthesis by P. syringae pv. syringae B728a, or may be used to degrade and assimilate aldoximes and nitriles produced during plant secondary metabolism. Nitrilase activity was not detected in P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000, despite the presence of a homologous nitrilase gene. This raises the interesting question of why nitrilase activity has been retained in P. syringae pv. syringae B728a and not in P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000.
Project description:Pseudomonas syringae infects diverse crop plants and comprises at least 50 different pathovar strains with different host ranges. More information on the physiological and molecular effects of the host inhibitory environment on the pathogen is needed to develop resistant cultivars. Recently, we reported an in vitro model system that mimics the redox pulse associated with the oxidative burst in plant cells inoculated with Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae. Using this system, we demonstrated that oxidation of acetosyringone, a major extracellular phenolic compound induced in some plants in response to bacteria, rendered Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae to a "viable but nonculturable" (VBNC) state. Here we performed a large scale transcriptome profiling of P. s. pv. syringae in the VBNC state induced by acetosyringone treatment and identified bacterial genes and pathways presumably associated with this condition. The findings offer insight into what events occur when bacterial pathogens are first encountered and host defense responses are triggered. The acquired knowledge will improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of stress tolerance. We believe that this is the first work on global gene expression profiling of VBNC cells in plant pathogenic bacteria.
Project description:The complete genomic sequence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a (Pss B728a) has been determined and is compared with that of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pst DC3000). The two pathovars of this economically important species of plant pathogenic bacteria differ in host range and other interactions with plants, with Pss having a more pronounced epiphytic stage of growth and higher abiotic stress tolerance and Pst DC3000 having a more pronounced apoplastic growth habitat. The Pss B728a genome (6.1 Mb) contains a circular chromosome and no plasmid, whereas the Pst DC3000 genome is 6.5 mbp in size, composed of a circular chromosome and two plasmids. Although a high degree of similarity exists between the two sequenced Pseudomonads, 976 protein-encoding genes are unique to Pss B728a when compared with Pst DC3000, including large genomic islands likely to contribute to virulence and host specificity. Over 375 repetitive extragenic palindromic sequences unique to Pss B728a when compared with Pst DC3000 are widely distributed throughout the chromosome except in 14 genomic islands, which generally had lower GC content than the genome as a whole. Content of the genomic islands varies, with one containing a prophage and another the plasmid pKLC102 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Among the 976 genes of Pss B728a with no counterpart in Pst DC3000 are those encoding for syringopeptin, syringomycin, indole acetic acid biosynthesis, arginine degradation, and production of ice nuclei. The genomic comparison suggests that several unique genes for Pss B728a such as ectoine synthase, DNA repair, and antibiotic production may contribute to the epiphytic fitness and stress tolerance of this organism.
Project description:Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae is a reemerging pathogen which causes bacterial canker of kiwifruit (Actinidia sp.). Since 2008, a global outbreak of P. syringae pv. actinidiae has occurred, and in 2010 this pathogen was detected in New Zealand. The economic impact and the development of resistance in P. syringae pv. actinidiae and other pathovars against antibiotics and copper sprays have led to a search for alternative management strategies. We isolated 275 phages, 258 of which were active against P. syringae pv. actinidiae. Extensive host range testing on P. syringae pv. actinidiae, other pseudomonads, and bacteria isolated from kiwifruit orchards showed that most phages have a narrow host range. Twenty-four were analyzed by electron microscopy, pulse-field gel electrophoresis, and restriction digestion. Their suitability for biocontrol was tested by assessing stability and the absence of lysogeny and transduction. A detailed host range was performed, phage-resistant bacteria were isolated, and resistance to other phages was examined. The phages belonged to the Caudovirales and were analyzed based on morphology and genome size, which showed them to be representatives of Myoviridae, Podoviridae, and Siphoviridae. Twenty-one Myoviridae members have similar morphologies and genome sizes yet differ in restriction patterns, host range, and resistance, indicating a closely related group. Nine of these Myoviridae members were sequenced, and each was unique. The most closely related sequenced phages were a group infecting Pseudomonas aeruginosa and characterized by phages JG004 and PAK_P1. In summary, this study reports the isolation and characterization of P. syringae pv. actinidiae phages and provides a framework for the intelligent formulation of phage biocontrol agents against kiwifruit bacterial canker.
Project description:The gene encoding alginate lyase (algL) in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae was cloned, sequenced, and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Alginate lyase activity was optimal when the pH was 7.0 and when assays were conducted at 42 degrees C in the presence of 0.2 M NaCl. In substrate specificity studies, AlgL from P. syringae showed a preference for deacetylated polymannuronic acid. Sequence alignment with other alginate lyases revealed conserved regions within AlgL likely to be important for the structure and/or function of the enzyme. Site-directed mutagenesis of histidine and tryptophan residues at positions 204 and 207, respectively, indicated that these amino acids are critical for lyase activity.