Project description:Domesticated animal populations often show profound reductions in predator avoidance and fear-related behavior compared to wild populations. These reductions are remarkably consistent and have been observed in a diverse array of taxa including fish, birds, and mammals. Experiments conducted in common environments indicate that these behavioral differences have a genetic basis. In this study, we quantified differences in fear-related behavior between wild and domesticated zebrafish strains and used microarray analysis to identify genes that may be associated with this variation. Compared to wild zebrafish, domesticated zebrafish spent more time near the water surface and were more likely to occupy the front of the aquarium nearest a human observer. Microarray analysis of the brain transcriptome identified high levels of population variation in gene expression, with 1,749 genes significantly differentially expressed among populations. Genes that varied among populations belonged to functional categories that included DNA repair, DNA photolyase activity, response to light stimulus, neuron development and axon guidance, cell death, iron-binding, chromatin reorganization, and homeobox genes. Comparatively fewer genes (112) differed between domesticated and wild strains with notable genes including gpr177 (wntless), selenoprotein P1a, synaptophysin and synaptoporin, and acyl-CoA binding domain containing proteins (acbd3 and acbd4). Microarray analysis identified a large number of genes that differed among zebrafish populations and may underlie behavioral domestication. Comparisons with similar microarray studies of domestication in rainbow trout and canids identified sixteen evolutionarily or functionally related genes that may represent components of shared molecular mechanisms underlying convergent behavioral evolution during vertebrate domestication. However, this conclusion must be tempered by limitations associated with comparisons among microarray studies and the low level of population-level replication inherent to these studies. RNA was extracted from the brains of fish from four behaviorally distinct strains of zebrafish and hybridized on Affymetrix microarrays. Brains from 2-5 individual fish of the same sex were pooled and homogenized together, for a total of two biological replicate pools per sex per strain (16 microarrays total).
Project description:Ischemic cardiopathy is the leading cause of death in the world, for which efficient regenerative therapy is not currently available. In mammals, after a myocardial infarction episode, the damaged myocardium is replaced by scar tissue featuring collagen deposition and tissue remodelling with negligible cardiomyocyte proliferation. Zebrafish, in contrast, display an extensive regenerative capacity as they are able to restore completely lost cardiac tissue after partial ventricular amputation. Due to the lack of genetic lineage tracing evidence, it is not yet clear if new cardiomyocytes arise from existing contractile cells or from an uncharacterised set of progenitors cells. Nonetheless, several genes and molecules have been shown to participate in this process, some of them being cardiomyocyte mitogens in vitro. Though questions as what are the early signals that drive the regenerative response and what is the relative role of each cardiac cell in this process still need to be answered, the zebrafish is emerging as a very valuable tool to understand heart regeneration and devise strategies that may be of potential value to treat human cardiac disease. Here, we performed a genome-wide transcriptome profile analysis focusing on the early time points of zebrafish heart regeneration and compared our results with those of previously published data. Our analyses confirmed the differential expression of several transcripts, and identified additional genes the expression of which is differentially regulated during zebrafish heart regeneration. We validated the microarray data by conventional and/or quantitative RT-PCR. For a subset of these genes, their expression pattern was analyzed by in situ hybridization and shown to be upregulated in the regenerating area of the heart. The specific role of these new transcripts during zebrafish heart regeneration was further investigated ex vivo using primary cultures of zebrafish cardiomyocytes and/or epicardial cells. Our results offer new insights into the biology of heart regeneration in the zebrafish and, together with future experiments in mammals, may be of potential interest for clinical applications. In order to study zebrafish heart regeneration, a time course experiment was realized where amputated heart regenerating were compared to control heart. Samples in triplicate were extracted at 1, 3, 5 and 7 days post-amputation.