Project description:Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is the primary cancer of the bile duct system. The role of bile duct tissue microbiomes in CCA tumorigenesis is unestablished. To address this, sixty primary CCA tumors and matched normals, from both liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini) associated (OVa, n=28) and non-O. viverrini associated (non-OVa, n=32) cancers, were profiled using high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing. A distinct, tissue-specific microbiome dominated by the bacterial families Dietziaceae, Pseudomonadaceae and Oxalobacteraceae was observed in bile duct tissues. Systemic perturbation of the microbiome was noted in tumor and paired normal samples (vs non-cancer normals) for several bacterial families with a significant increase in Stenotrophomonas species distinguishing tumors vs paired normals. Comparison of parasite associated (OVa) vs non-associated (non-OVa) groups identified enrichment for specific enteric bacteria (Bifidobacteriaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcaceae). One of the enriched families, Bifidobacteriaceae, was found to be dominant in the O. viverrini microbiome, providing a mechanistic link to the parasite. Functional analysis and comparison of CCA microbiomes revealed higher potential for producing bile acids and ammonia in OVa tissues, linking the altered microbiota to carcinogenesis. These results define how the unique microbial communities resident in the bile duct, parasitic infections and the tissue microenvironment can influence each other, and contribute to cancer.
Project description:Clonorchis sinensis is a food-borne trematode that infects more than 15 million people. The liver fluke causes clonorchiasis and chronical cholangitis, and promotes cholangiocarcinoma. The underlying molecular pathogenesis occurring in the bile duct by the infection is little known. In this study, transcriptome profile in the bile ducts infected with C. sinensis were analyzed using microarray methods. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were 1,563 and 1,457 at 2 and 4 weeks after infection. Majority of the DEGs were temporally dysregulated at 2 weeks, but 519 DEGs showed monotonically changing expression patterns that formed seven distinct expression profiles. Protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis of the DEG products revealed 5 sub-networks and 10 key hub proteins while weighted co-expression network analysis (WGCNA)-derived gene-gene interaction exhibited 16 co-expression modules and 13 key hub genes. The DEGs were significantly enriched in 16 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, which were related to original systems, cellular process, environmental information processing, and human diseases. This study uncovered a global picture of gene expression profiles in the bile ducts infected with C. sinensis, and provided a set of potent predictive biomarkers for early diagnosis of clonorchiasis.
Project description:Pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy has become a standard operation for distal and middle bile duct cancers. Bile duct cancer typically extends longitudinally and invades vertically. It frequently metastasizes to the lymph nodes and infiltrates the perineural spaces. The presence of residual cancer in the bile duct stump and lymph node metastases are significant prognostic factors. Negative surgical margins and D2 lymph node dissection are necessary for curative resection. The clinical course after portal vein resection for bile duct cancer with portal vein invasion is better than that of non-resectable bile duct cancer. Portal vein resection can therefore be useful. The efficacy of prophylactic portal vein resection is unclear. We describe here our methods for performing pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy for bile duct cancer.
Project description:Bile duct cancer is one of the lethal cancers, presenting difficulties in early diagnosis and limited treatment modalities. Despite current advances in biomarker research, most studies have been performed in Western populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine a prognostic marker for bile duct cancer, especially in Korean patients, whose incidence of bile duct cancer is high.Comparing cancer and normal bile duct tissue, we identified 29091 differentially expressed genes. CP, SCEL, and MUC16 had positive coefficients with a log2 ratio >1 for advanced T, N stage and perineural invasion cancer tissue. Strong immunohistochemical expression of ceruloplasmin was dominant in tumors with advanced T stage (p>0.999) and perineural invasion (p=0.316).We performed tissue microarray experiment with 79 bile duct cancer tissue samples and 21 normal bile duct tissue samples. Candidate genes that has positive correlation with T, N stage and perineural invasion were drawn with multivariate analysis. Tissue expression of the genes was evaluated with an immunohistochemical study.Ceruloplasmin is supposed to be related with advanced T stage and perineural invasion, having a possibility as a candidate prognostic marker for bile duct cancer.
Project description:Background/Aims:There have been no nationwide studies to investigate the trends in incidence and 5-year survival rates of intra- and extrahepatic bile duct cancers and gallbladder cancer. Therefore, our study aimed to describe the incidence and 5-year survival rates of biliary tract cancers by subsites in South Korea. Methods:A total of 86,134 patients with biliary tract cancers were selected from the National Health Information Database. Age-standardized incidence rates and annual percentage changes were calculated. Lifetable methods and log-rank tests were used to determine the differences in survival rates. Cox-proportional hazard models were used to estimate the hazard ratio of the patients with biliary tract cancers. Results:The incidence rate of intrahepatic bile duct cancer decreased by 1.3% annually from 8.8 per 100,000 in 2006 to 7.8 per 100,000 in 2015. Extrahepatic bile duct cancer also showed a decreasing trend by 2.2% per year from 8.7 per 100,000 in 2006 to 6.7 per 100,000 in 2015. Gallbladder cancer showed the greatest decline, with an annual percentage change of 2.8% from 6.3 per 100,000 to 5.2 per 100,000 during the same period. The 5-year survival rates were 30.0% in gallbladder cancer, 27.8% in extrahepatic bile duct cancer, and 15.9% in intrahepatic bile duct cancer. Conclusions:The overall incidence rates of intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct cancer and gallbladder cancer decreased from 2006 to 2015. Among biliary tract cancers, intrahepatic bile duct cancers exhibited the highest incidence rate and the worst survival rate.
Project description:Biliary tract cancers, encompassing gallbladder, extrahepatic bile duct and ampulla of Vater cancers, are uncommon but often fatal malignancies. Hormone-related factors, including parity, oral contraceptive use, obesity, and gallstones, have been implicated in the etiology of these cancers. To further clarify the role of hormones in biliary tract cancers and biliary stones, we genotyped 18 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in nine genes involved in steroid hormone biosynthesis, metabolism and transport in a population-based case-control study in Shanghai, China. This study included subjects who completed an interview and provided blood, which totaled 411 biliary tract cancer and 893 biliary stone patients and 786 healthy Shanghai residents. The CYP1A1 IVS1 + 606 (rs2606345) T allele was associated with gallbladder [odds ratio (OR) = 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3-3.0] and bile duct cancers (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1-3.1), whereas the CYP1A1 Ex7 + 131 (rs1048943) G allele was associated with ampulla of Vater cancer (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.5-5.4). After taking into account multiple comparisons for SNPs within each gene, CYP1A1 was significantly associated with gallbladder (P = 0.004) and ampulla of Vater cancers (P = 0.01), but borderline with bile duct cancer (P = 0.06). The effect of CYP1A1 IVS1 + 606 on gallbladder cancer was more pronounced among non-obese (body mass index < 23) (OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 1.8-6.1; P interaction = 0.001). Among women taking oral contraceptives, the effect of SHBG Ex8 + 6 (rs6259) on gallbladder cancer (OR = 6.7, 95% CI = 2.2-20.5; P interaction = 0.001) and stones (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.1-4.9; P-interaction = 0.05) was statistically significant. Our findings suggest that common variants in hormone-related genes contribute to the risk of biliary tract cancers and stones, possibly by modulating hormone metabolism.
Project description:Abernethy malformation is a rare congenital anomaly characterised by the partial or complete absence of the portal vein and the subsequent development of an extrahepatic portosystemic shunt. Caroli's disease is a rare congenital condition characterised by non-obstructive saccular intrahepatic bile duct dilation. Caroli's disease combined with congenital hepatic fibrosis and/or renal cystic disease is referred to - Caroli's syndrome. The combination of Abernethy malformation and Caroli's syndrome has not been reported previously.We present the case of a 23-year-old female who was found to have both type II Abernethy malformation and Caroli's syndrome. Radiological imaging was performed, including computed tomography with three-dimensional reconstruction and magnetic resonance imaging with (magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), which revealed a side-to-side portocaval shunt, intrahepatic bile duct dilation, congenital hepatic fibrosis, and renal cysts. In addition, PKHD1 (polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1) gene mutational analysis revealed a paternally inherited heterozygous missense mutation (c.1877A > G, p.Lys626Arg). A liver biopsy confirmed the pathological features of Caroli's syndrome.To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a patient with both type II Abernethy malformation and Caroli's syndrome diagnosed using a comprehensive approach that included imaging, mutational analysis, and liver biopsy. Additionally, this is the second reported case to date of an Asian patient presenting with liver and renal disorders with the same paternally inherited PKHD1 missense mutation.